This has transformed moral rights claims to more universalised demands among subaltern groups to have a share in the economic prosperity of the free market. Following Chatterjee , this move from subjecthood to citizenship is now one that makes claims on governmental authorities over services and benefit such as digital access.
First, as enumeration through citizen consultations of a digital population that had so far been hidden from analogue technologies of measurement such as the Census. This is a call by the state that evokes the moral imperatives of all citizens to engage in citizen consultations, but that paradoxically imparts subjecthood to subaltern groups.
Second, articulation of how to become smart citizens is key to establishing and reinforcing social and political power over both territorial and digital spaces of the city. The chatur citizen, as I argue in this paper, is a cultural rather than literal translation, which loses its neutrality and acquires heightened political meaning in the process. How does one investigate the digital turn in postcolonial cities before the arrival of the smart city in its material form? How does one investigate smart citizenship in the absence of subaltern rights to the city? How does one investigate citizenship in the future smart city?
Smart Citizens As The Key Enablers
Crucial to our project were two scales of inquiry. First, a horizon scanning of publicly available smart city documents and applications. A key source was the federal Indian Ministry of Urban Development MoUD website, which hosts vast resources of online citizen consultations and smart city applications submitted by different urban municipalities towards the smart cities challenge.
A large part of the analysis in this paper is driven by a discursive analysis of the documents, applications and citizen consultations in terms of their references to and descriptions of the smart citizen. The second scale of inquiry is related to the space of a series of four stakeholder workshops held in India from January to June in four cities bidding for the challenge — Varanasi, Chandigarh, Navi Mumbai and Nashik.
For the first time, these stakeholders were meeting around a table to debate the future Indian city. For the first time, stakeholders in government, third sector and subaltern groups realised that the smart city held very different meanings across the table. This to us was the defining moment of emergent citizenship, where we observed the rhetorical confusion and breach of the imagined smart city at different scales.
In doing so, the four city workshops were taken as ethnographic sites for observing the unfolding of enumerations, articulations and breaches of smart citizenship. Our role as facilitators of the workshop directed these interactions quite specifically for the stakeholders. On the one hand, we asked all stakeholders to articulate their aspirations for the future city. We observed the blueprints of smart urbanism presented by government agencies which valorised technology as a means to control the perceived disorder of existing Indian cities.
Finally, we also observed how through these discussions, a new rhetorical and paradoxical smart citizen became indigenous to the historical struggles of subaltern citizenship. These were unrecorded, but these discussions have contributed to the analysis of citizen consultations. These two scales of inquiry brought out the complex nature of smart cities, citizenship and its contested translation in postcolonial contexts.
These translations are both discursive and material in that these are both embedded in policy documents and embodied in everyday life struggles. Following Jazeel's , p. The methodological approach then is to unpack how data, policy, representations and discourses of smart citizenship together rework the everyday struggles of ordinary citizenship. In the sections that follow, I present three simultaneous processes of smart citizenship in India — enumerations, articulations and breaches.
Through these processes, I outline an emergent postcolonial subject who is simultaneously transgressive and compliant in their practices and performances of citizenship in the new smart city. I will conclude with the potential of this new postcolonial citizen in India to embody the inherent conflicts and contradictions of a digital urban age. In May , a new ruling party came to power in India on the basis of their promises of good governance and economic growth. The key feature of the smart cities agenda in India is a national competition between existing cities nominated by regional states.
Each regional state was expected to make similar financial commitments. Each nominated city would then make a bid to receive the allocated money, as well as raise matching funds from its own revenue sources. Indeed, the Smart City guidelines explicitly made the case that there is no universally accepted definition of a Smart City. It means different things to different people. The conceptualisation of Smart City, therefore, varies from city to city and country to country, depending on the level of development, willingness to change and reform, resources and aspirations of the city residents.
GoI, , p. Despite its locally situated rhetoric, India's smart cities challenge encompassed a neoliberal logic that made private sector involvement obligatory. The final deployment of smart technologies was to be tendered to international ICT companies such as IBM, Cisco, Siemens, Hewlett Packard and others who were named as potential partners. This was legitimised through citizen consultations.
This then was not just a digital turn in urbanism but an urbanism for and by digital technology. The Ministry reported that a total of The national smart cities mission had tapped into the digital sphere to produce millions of digital citizens projected to become smart citizens in the future. But who were these smart citizens of the future? How were they discursively and performatively produced? What was their role in the future smart city? MoUD, , p.
These explicit links between digital participation and digital surveillance were dropped in the final Smart City mission guidelines, to describe a more active citizen. The Proposal development will lead to creation of a smart citizenry. Each city carried out extensive public mobilisation events smart city walks and marathons, essay, poster and logo competitions.
One of the key platforms where these processes came together was the MoUD website, which hosted the smart city proposals and citizen consultations with over 2 million online comments received across 98 cities. Despite being a small share of the total urban population of these cities, this nevertheless revealed the huge shift towards digital enumeration in urban governance. For example, by the end of , Chandigarh Municipal Corporation reported that there had been about 20, MyGov submissions with over 56, Facebook likes, tweets and views of YouTube videos of their smart cities proposal.
The language of consultations on the digital platforms was English, although responses were sometimes in Hindi or other regional languages.
Turin | Regulating Smart Cities II: Mobility and Digital Citizenship
The platform to interact and input suggestions also required skills that were clearly absent among those with lower education and digital capabilities. This was a step before they could then be trained to become smart citizens, articulating and performing their access to digital space in various ways to serve the demands of smart cities. Online citizens became what Pollio , p.
The citizen consultations highlighted three key processes in the making of smart citizenship. The Smart Cities Mission requires smart people who actively participate in governance and reforms. Citizen involvement is much more than a ceremonial participation in governance. In this role, smart people were collaborators and endorsers of the smart city, rather than critical and active citizens. Thus, instead of testing smart cities as the site of democratic participation, smart citizens were constructed as allies of state—private sector experiments in urban governance.
A large part of citizen feedback in the online consultations involved suggestions on improving urban basic services, provision of physical and social infrastructure, supply of urban basic services and so on. Finally, online citizen consultations extended historic social inequalities from the urban to the digital realm. It is here that new categories of exclusion emerged from the digital realm where the right to be a smart citizen was premised on the removal of those not deemed to belong to the future smart city. These comments of varied length and detail called for the elimination of open defecation, removal of hawkers and street markets, provision of green spaces, prohibiting spitting, beautification of neighbourhoods, planting trees, jogging and cycling tracks, enforcing parking provisions, traffic rules and so on.
While there were no clear guidelines on who owned the data on citizen consultations, and how that data was to be used, ownership of physical property in the city determined how inclusion and exclusion from the future city were discoursed and practised. Smart city consultants noted that this would produce the future smart citizen who used their digital presence to support and transform urban governance. The subaltern citizen can now no longer make straightforward moral rights claims through political society.
Rather they must now find new ways to breach the boundaries between digital and urban publics that define their exclusion from the future city. Indeed, an hospitalbased healthcare system as the only center for dealing with all the issues relative to health in a direct or indirect manner is inadequate to the peculiar needs of an increasing number of elderly people. This results in the need to build a network of highly integrated and continuous support services that can be implemented in differentiated assistance projects.
In this context, the technology is playing an increasingly important role and an analysis is necessary regarding the sustainability and impact of the new health technologies on the existing scenery. Keywords—Healthcare; smart city; wellbeing. Abstract - Modern cities use information and communication technologies to obtain deep insights on the different aspects of the way they operate, which can allow officials to make informed decisions to improve the operational efficiency of different operations and improve the life of their citizens. Analyzing the data about the different activities poses significant challenges.
It is not merely the volume that recent hardware and software advancements have helped to achieve, but also challenges regarding the variety, velocity, and veracity of the data. All this is often known as the Big Data paradigm. In this document, we analyze some of these challenges, which we believe have not yet received considerable attention, we explain their value, and we describe some of the advanced solutions we have developed.
Abstract - Smart Cities generate continuously a huge amounts of graph data. The collection, processing, and analysis of such data is crucial for the prosperity and progress of the cities. Many specialized solutions have been developed for dealing with graph data. Among them are Graph Database Systems that offer storage and querying for graph data. We also analyze some scenarios in the domain of Smart Cities and, based on our findings, suggest the most appropriate system to use in each use case. Abstract — A sustainable energy transition means substantial changes in technology, but also a change in behavior and policies, thus requiring the engagement of both the engineering and the social science communities.
Providing smart meters and technology for feedback about energy consumption have been considered strategic in current energy policies, as part of the battle against climate change. However, feedback alone does not always lead to energy savings.
A citizen engagement app with a difference
Beyond information on their own consumption and generic advices, people usually still need more specific guidance about how to change their behavior in an effective and sustainable way. Energy demand is mostly influenced by end user choices and behaviors, making the effectiveness of the adoption of new technologies not effective as expected.
This article discusses how technology and electricity consumption feedback alone may not be sufficient to drive a sustainable energy transition. Download white paper PDF, 1. This massive movement of people from rural to urban areas pose challenges for municipal governments. To meet the growing demand of resources, cities must evolve and build advanced, large-scale networks able to efficiently retrieve and distribute the needed resources. Not only, the same citizen should have access to different services that may need to share information to interoperate correctly. Multiple networks will therefore need a common technological layer where confidential data about citizens can be exchanged and stored securely.
The emerging technological tool to implement such platform, so to empower the Smart Cities of tomorrow, is the blockchain. But what is a blockchain? How does it work? Which applications for Smart Cities can we run on top of it? The goal of this paper is to answer these questions. Abstract — Smart lighting is one of the key needs of everyday life for citizens. On the one hand, the presence of light is critical to provide security and safety. On the other hand, excessive usage of electrical energy influences greenhouse gasses increase. This white paper explores the importance of smart lighting in the context of smart cities.
In particular, the importance of smart energy management of lighting and the choice of right technologies are discussed. Some possible technology solutions are presented and their performance are analyzed. Abstract— This White Paper has its roots in the two-day workshop held in Trento, Italy, in December involving representatives from local governance, associations, industry and start-ups.
Within this context, empowered communities of users, local governance together with citizens, can perform common actions aimed at maximizing the efficiency of distribution and consumption of energy. Several actions can be implemented with the active engagement of the local communities and stakeholders. This paper aims at presenting how the Municipality of Trento can adopt technological innovations and new end-user engagement policies.
Abstract— In this paper, we present a general overview of the perspectives and issues of Big Data and Open Data in a Smart City, with specific implications for the municipality of Trento, Italy.
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- Turin | Regulating Smart Cities II: Mobility and Digital Citizenship.
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We start by presenting the current state of the art of Big Data and Open Data in Trento and continue by proposing a line of development for these two topics that could positively impact the everyday life of its citizens. We will place particular emphasis on the results that emerged from the discussion we had during the working group meeting that the municipality organized on this topic. The challenges posed by four enablers of Big Data and Open Data projects and initiatives are described: cultural enablers, organizational enablers, governance enablers and technological enablers.
Abstract— Urban Mobility systems play an increasingly important role in the way people move around their communities and how communities develop. Despite the significant benefits to using public transportation, many potential riders are reluctant to utilize public transportation. In this current situation, cities and communities are increasing efforts to provide multiple solutions for urban mobility and to promote it among their users.
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Although such an approach provides valuable alternatives to the citizenry, it also multiplies the information flow that users and service-providers must gather. Riders and commuters are, then, often confused or intimidated by the complexity and unpredictable nature of transit systems.
During this workshop, we analyzed in detail the current situation of Trento as a Smart City and the general requirements for transforming a good mobility plan into a smart mobility action. Abstract - Starting from state-of-the-art best practices and the Trento experience, this white paper aims to define the needs, behavior and expectations of integrated and connected tourism industry service providers, describing innovative service concepts, patterns, trends and requirements to support the development of these services.
Nollo, R. Caon, A. Feliziani, P. Postiglione turinschool. Carrozza eui. Who should regulate and why? Smart city projects: the need for an holistic approach.
Smart cities vs smart citizens | The Mobile City
A soft intro to applied data science. Smart Cities and Network Industries. Luigi Ardito, Qualcomm. Coffee Break. The public perspective. Coffee break.
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