However, except for psychoanalysts—the pricey, traditional Freudians you see more in movies than in reality—psychotherapists are virtually never required to undergo therapy, even as a part of their training. Freud himself would be appalled by this. Unfortunately—and ironically—many psychotherapists are reluctant to seek therapy. In a survey by Guy and James Liaboe, Ph.
Or they mistakenly believe, as many patients do, that seeking therapy is a sign of failure. When I served as chair of a university psychology department, I helped evaluate candidates for our marriage and family counseling program. Data supporting this idea, however, are hard to find. On the other hand, in psychologists Pilar Poal, Ph. Weisz, Ph. That study, however, is practically the only one that supports the wounded-healer hypothesis.
Basically, yes. Bucky, Ph. Here are some tips for protecting yourself from impaired mental health professionals, and, perhaps, in so doing, for helping them overcome their own problems. Remember, therapists are people, too. Independent, isolated therapists are probably at greatest risk for having undetected and untreated problems of their own. On the other hand, therapists working for managed care organizations or working under the gun of insurance companies are exposed to special constraints and stressors that may limit their ability to help you.
Second, trust your gut. Indeed, any time your therapist shows clear signs of personal distress or impairment, bring your concerns to his or her attention. Or, consider finding a new therapist. You have legitimate cause for concern if your therapist:. In fact, therapists who talk about their own unresolved problems are more likely to make sexual advances than those who actually touch their clients.
For help locating the appropriate organization or board, call the relevant national organization. For psychologists, call the American Psychological Association at ; for psychiatrists, call the American Psychiatric Association at If your therapist is a marriage and family counselor, try the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy at , and if your therapist is a social worker, try the National Association of Social Workers at Pilot programs are already under way, and some think that many psychologists will be able to dispense drugs to their patients within five years.
So much for the distinction between psychiatrists and psychologists. The answer, unfortunately, may be yes. Harvard psychiatrist Malkah Notman, M. With medication, you can get in a lot of trouble very fast. Prescribing drugs is really quite risky. Even with medical training, a lot of people get rusty. Ci sarebbero stati modi molto efficaci e non distruttivi di reagire a tale violenza ma Tausk era un individuo fragile e profondamente malato: probabilmente era affetto da una forma di schizofrenia cosiddetta latente che si celava dietro la sua intelligenza brillante.
Di questi problemi,relativi alle condizioni mentali degli operatori psichiatrici, certamente scomodi, sembra che nessuno abbia la voglia od il coraggio di parlare. Il professor Pancheri nel proporre la sua tesi aveva presenti gli studi di J. Lewin risalenti al XIX secolo ed agli inizi del Novecento? Bisogna ricordare come J. Intorno al L. Le aberrazioni dei sensi degli ammalati di mente, gli stati visionari avrebbero alla base un substrato materiale.
In tali condizioni la libido somatica subisce una trasformazione e si scarica attraverso la forma di un attacco di angoscia. Menu Vai al contenuto. A quanto pare il popolo neozelandese non si occupa particolarmente di questo argomento Di tutti i libri di Jeff sugli animali , questo sembra arrivare al cuore del problema dei confini morali che separano gli umani dagli animali.
Condividi: Fai clic qui per condividere su Twitter Si apre in una nuova finestra Click to share on Facebook Si apre in una nuova finestra Fai clic qui per condividere su LinkedIn Si apre in una nuova finestra Clicca per inviare l'articolo via mail ad un amico Si apre in una nuova finestra. Mi piace: Mi piace Caricamento Non ho trovato studi recenti sul rischio suicidario negli psichiatri in lingua italiana.
Psychiatric illness in the medical profession: incidence in relation to sex and field of practice. Watterson abstract The overall incidence of psychiatric illness among the physicians of British Columbia during was 1. Suicide by psychiatrists: a study of medical specialists among 18, consecutive physician deaths during a five-year period, Abstract This report is of suicide by psychiatrists from suicides in 18, consecutive deaths of U.
It demonstrates that psychiatrists suicide regularly, year-by-year, at rates about twice those expected; and these differences are statistically significant. Why Shrinks Have Problems Suicide, stress, divorce — psychologists and other mental health professionals may actually be more screwed up than the rest of us. Turns out I was wrong. Doctor, Are You Feeling Okay? The Final Resolution Bruno Bettelheim.
You have legitimate cause for concern if your therapist: shows signs of excessive fatigue, such as red eyes or sleepiness. GA, tomi 93 e 94, che vedranno la luce nel marzo GA , 79, p. Trawny ritiene che in quegli anni le idee antisemite fossero diffuse ma da chi? A giudicare della prime reazioni, le ripercussioni nel mondo accademico su scala internazionale saranno notevoli. Gastone and Fernanda were a good pair. She would surface again in , this time echoing her late husband s initial correspondence with the duce: all she wanted was his opinion.
She sent a letter to his secretary, now Osvaldo Sebastiani, with a play she had written: Verso l avvenire! Toward the Future! For all of these reasons, it was inutile che Voi lo mandiate per competenza al Ministero della Stampa e Propaganda. This was pure grandstanding, though, as the play had already been submitted and received clearance by the Ministry censor in ; what s more, the boasting was followed by a rather confused counter-argument: only the duce could say if the work was worth anything at all.
She therefore asked Sebastiani to read it and, if he Il Capo del Governo legga il Verso l avvenire! In the archive, there is no trace of a response. This is just one of many instances in which the duce who captured so many imaginations would become character in a play of his own. The moment in which Benito Mussolini, as duce, came closest to being an actor, to turn once again to that ubiquitous and problematic notion, was in his very final days. On April 27, , traveling with German military forces, attempting to escape capture by the Partisans, he, too, donned a Nazi uniform, in an attempt to avoid being recognized.
His performance failed; he was apprehended; the next day, she was shot to death. On the 29 th, his body would appear high above the crowds once more, but this time as a cadaver, strung upside down in a Milanese piazza. So, too, when he arrived in Trent, police were on the lookout for the dangerous revolutionary, while the Camera del Lavoro that had hired him to be secretary and to direct its weekly newspaper, L Avvenire del Lavoratore, touted the arrival of the impassioned propagandist who, quite cultured, knew German perfectly a clear asset in the Trentino, a largely Italian-speaking region of the Austro-Hungarian empire.
In that paper and other local rags, comrade Mussolini wrote copiously and widely: party bureaucracy and organization didn t totally satisfy him, but the agitation of political partisanship and social-cultural interventions he found rather exciting, and so he penned everything from play reviews and pieces on poetry and drama to articles about philosophy and politics. Mussolini wasn t just a skilled pulpiteer, it turned out: at Trent, like in Geneva and Lausanne, the words that flowed from his pen caused a stir, and in just a few weeks politics there were turned on their head.
Seven months later, he d be thrown out of the region. One of his pieces was an essay on Friedrich Schiller s Wilhelm Tell he excerpted it from the Studi critici della letteratura tedesca he was preparing and published it in La Vita Trentina. Mussolini had a special passion for German culture in general, and the drama of that period he especially prized.
From the beginning, my husband greatly admired Germany, Rachele later recollected: not the land of their Reich, perhaps, but the country 1 Benito Mussolini, La mia vita, cit. It was they who had been his spiritual masters and shaped his pattern of thought. The duce was fond of reciting poetry aloud in original languages from Latin to English to French but had a special penchant for declaiming long passages, from memory, of that masterpiece about the great mind who had sold his soul.
Though his article did discuss virile heroism and contain socialist themes, however, it was principally dedicated to the play s female figures. Charles T. Brooks, Ticknor and Fields, Boston , p. That Wilhelm Tell merited attention as a political play is indisputable, but Mussolini s interest in it on these grounds is significant here because it represents an approach to drama he would forever hold. He was anything but deaf to aesthetic questions, but the political conclusions to be drawn from dramatic works would wholly condition his responses to them and their authors.
And it was as a politician that Mussolini read and studied: he tended to adopt ideas that confirmed his intuitions or offered solutions to the problems that concerned him. In short, sapeva dare, alle idee che assimilava, un accento proprio, e fonderle in una visione personale della vita. The dictator tended, essentially, to read through a personalized lens that allowed him to see in dramatic works renderings of his own political philosophy.
In certain areas, like philosophy, history, and literature, he was well versed, and his elaboration of the issues and themes that interested him have a great deal to teach us about fascism s ideological core and the regime s governing strategies on cultural issues and non. Moreover, as already suggested in the previous chapter, Mussolini the critic s judgments influenced the work of Mussolini the impresario, dramatist, and censor, impacting the theatrical programming of the ventennio, as we will see throughout the present study.
When he became Head of Government, of course, Mussolini wouldn t do much writing about theatre and drama, so commentaries like the one on Schiller and public pronouncements aren t easy to come by. Instead, we have to rely on interviews, private letters, and the testimonies of contemporaries. One of these is extraordinarily revealing. The duce read widely and with vivid interest, and when his gaze fell across a work he thought wasn t half bad, he let its author know. This was the case with the verse tragedy Simma: in , he used the respite of Christmas and Saint Stephen s holiday to read the play and write to its author, Francesco Pastonchi.
Caro Pastonchi, 9 Emilio Gentile, Le origini dell ideologia, cit. Anche commuoverlo. Gli artisti finiranno per cantare, come se si trattasse di un opera lirica, alla quale manca soltanto un po di orchestrazione. Bisognerebbe tradurre in prosa la vostra tragedia: intendo una prosa secca, lineare, disadorna quale dovrebbe essere la prosa dei costruttori, architetti, maestranze di Pontia.
Ed ora qualche rilievo. Anche i suoi battibecchi colla Cecia sono esercenteschi all estremo. A pag. Se fossi in voi, io, a pag. Qualcuno potrebbe osservare che sono troppo vaghi a pag. Sono sicuro che in ulteriori letture voi perfezionerete ancora il testo. Caressez votre phrase: elle finira pour vous sourire A. Altro problema di primissimo ordine dato il carattere della tragedia: la messa in scena. Ed ora, prima di salutarvi molto cordialmente, vi prego di non prendermi alla lettera come critico letterario, o teatrale che dir si voglia.
Good fortune could come to he who impressed the duce, we see here. While Pastonchi kept the text in verse, he did alter some of the lines in question; and there were special government funds allocated for a production of Simma. But, in the end, the best way to evaluate the duce s tastes and critical point of view is to begin with his own canon: those playwrights whose dramas he particularly appreciated or whose paths crossed with his in meaningful ways.
Mussolini would never lose his taste for Verdi, Goethe, or Schiller, but the dramatists who interest us here are the moderns : the critic s contemporaries, to whom he would be drawn for clear philosophical and sociopolitical affinities. Of greatest importance to our discussion are Gabriele d Annunzio, Luigi Pirandello, and George Bernard Shaw, as well as Massimo Bontempelli, who is today lesser known but during the ventennio was one of Italy s chief intellectuals. Each of these writers was absolutely anti-bourgeois in spirit, if not in class category. They desired drastic political change and believed it would take a heroic figure to bring it about.
Accordingly, most of them were as anti-democratic in their impulses as the Capo was. Massimo Bontempelli is a case apart: like d Annunzio, he was an ally from the nineteen-teens, and a writer whom Mussolini particularly esteemed. We don t know much of what he thought of Bontempelli s theatrical works; but, given his importance as a playwright and theorist, and as a promoter of what he hoped would become a particularly fascist form of aesthetic modernism, it is worth dedicating some space to him here as a fascist intellectual more generally, and one who had a revelatory relationship with the leader of what they hoped would be a real revolution.
Triumph of the Will: Nietzsche in d Annunzio, Pirandello, Shaw For Mussolini, German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche offered a response to questo periodo angoscioso e tragico di crisi che attraversa la coscienza europea nella ricerca di nuove fonti di piacere, di bellezza, d ideale : this he would write in La filosofia della forza, published as a series of articles in Il pensiero romagnolo in November and December of , the year after Thus Spoke Zarathustra and The Birth of Tragedy had been released in Italian.
Fundamental to the fascist vision, in fact, was the very sense of crisis: the regime, with a vitalist and anti-bourgeois conception of the world would lead Italians out of the spiritual vacuity of an increasingly consumerist materialist modernity. Under Mussolini s guidance, the fascists would create a new man. Their revolution wasn t just socio-political, but in this sense, anthropological.
In a world where God was dead, Nietzsche auspicated, the Superman would create new values. Breaking free from the herd mentality that governed the lives of the last man, who lacked ambition and courage, seeking only comfort and social harmony, this superior being would learn to fully master himself and achieve his earthly wants. The ultimate goal of humanity, for Nietzsche, was the production of the Superman.
Likewise influential for the duce was French social psychologist Gustave Le Bon, whose The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind fascinated Mussolini and formed his conviction that the ignorant and unruly masses needed a strong hand to guide them to mold them into a race of citizen-warriors, in effect, of Supermen.
Benjamin s identification of the aestheticization of politics, discussed in the introduction, as central to fascism s action on the public stemmed from the fact that the duce did in fact see the crowd as formless, irrational putty to be managed even crushed by his capable Superman hands.
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Ludwig, Colloqui, cit, p De Begnac, Taccuini, cit. As the most genius spirit of the previous quarter century, Nietzsche had left an indelible mark: gli artisti di tutti i paesi, da Ibsen a d Annunzio, had found in his philosophy il germe e la ragione di ogni rivolta e di ogni atteggiamento morale e politico.
The trauma for Nietzsche but also for Mussolini, Ibsen, and d Annunzio was that the superman was yet to arrive. The Superman s struggle to exist, to surpass, Mussolini evidently sensed quite acutely; he would find the theme again and again in the works of the playwrights he read, and liked.
Mussolini From a certain point of view, they could almost seem kindred spirits: growing up, Gabriele, too, was a rambunctious and insubordinate student more brilliant than Benito whose special something had his teachers proclaiming that he was destined for greatness, and already dedito tutto a farsi un grande nome. Gabriele, too, made a precocious debut: Mussolini had been moved to turn a speech on Verdi into a political statement at age 17, but d Annunzio one-upped him by publishing his first poetry, including an ode to King Umberto, at 16 many years earlier, for he was twenty years Mussolini s senior, born in But he, 16 Mussolini, La filosofia della forza, cit.
The duce s insatiable passion for women was matched by the poet s: this aspect of the latter s personality has been immortalized, in the museum at his Lake Garda villa, the Vittoriale degli Italiani, by a nightshirt with a conveniently-placed hole edged in gold lame, and by several testimonies, including a servant s spirited observation, if it weren t for the women, my boss would ve written the bible, too. That eye would ache him for the rest of his days, like Mussolini s ulcer and war-wounded left leg.
They had lone wolf tendencies both, and in d Annunzio wrote Mussolini that they had grown closer because anche tu sei solitario come io sono solitario. Anche tu delle tue tristezze fai la tua forza cruda. When their relationship began in the late s, 20 the poet was a legend, Mussolini an up-and-comer. Milioni di italiani l attendono. Their first known face-to-face meeting took place in Rome in June 23, It should be noted, however, that when d Annunzio died in , Mussolini spoke of their year relationship.
His techniques he had outlined in literary works, including the drama La Gloria and the novel Il Fuoco , and their success he vaunted with Mussolini, writing once that lo spettacolo fu stupendo, nella vecchia piazza popolesca and then several months later, Ieri parlai chiaro alla folla con la spada nella bocca tra la commozione di tutti. He was a Vate, so much more than either great poet or a particularly flamboyant war hero; he was the high priest of Italian patriotism, a charismatic spiritual leader to boot if in a mystical rather than religious sense.
To communicate the status of epic proportions the poet had reached during the ventennio, I need only recall an anecdote recorded by fascist hierarch Giuseppe Bottai, who visited a school named after Anita Garibaldi, the daredevil wife of the Unification s most beloved hero, and asked a little girl there if she knew who the woman was. The husband she began, to Bottai s questioning amusement.
Yes, indeed, the husband of Gabriele d Annunzio! For Mosse, d Annunzio s conception of politics was his major contribution to fascism in Italy, and indeed to the advancement of a political style that had grown up during the nineteenth century and that he perfected. The poet was in fact, for Mosse, as important for understanding the nature of modern politics as any statesman or ruler, pp.
In short, the Comandante was, to use Mussolini s legendary language, covered in gold. And yet, things weren t really so simple. The Vate may have acted as John the Baptist, but he was no disciple: neither a member of the fascist party nor particularly thrilled by its modus operandi his lukewarm reception of the group and its squadrismo in the early years engendered an enduring diffidence toward him on the part of several hierarchs.
Each time, the duce responded with a cool head and steady hand, firm but always reassuring, as in when d Annunzio accused him of suspicion towards him: La tua lettera mi ha semplicemente sbalordito.
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La riscossa nazionale di oggi non fu annunziata da me? Rather, for a time the Comandante was a rival to Mussolini: up until the aforementioned congress of , when the duce s leadership of the PNF was anything but a foregone conclusion, many thought that the poet and not the journalist would emerge as chief. The Fortinbras of Predappio, as d Annunzio called Mussolini, 28 had proven himself a capable politician, but not necessarily a charismatic leader, and so, simply put, if the arditi and avant-gardists among the first fascists sought such a new man to lead the way, the poetsoldier not Fortinbras was their natural choice.
Having been effectively outmaneuvered by the duce in what De Felice has called un vero piccolo capolavoro di tattica politica, he did nothing to oppose the March on Rome, in part perhaps because he like so many others didn t believe it would result in an enduring government. As he waited, Mussolini consolidated his own power.
See Carteggio D Annunzio Mussolini, cit. D Annunzio refuted accusations that he envied Mussolini envy, never, for that was the capital vice one got zero enjoyment from! Le testimonianze d amore e di fede non m illudono. L Italia d oggi non m ama e non crede in me. This is ironic, of course, for it was their shared vision of a world in which art and politics were fused that drew them together; but it was the re-separation of those elements, Mussolini taking on politics and d Annunzio opting for the arts, that allowed them not merely to coexist but to behave as friends and allies.
The Matteotti crisis, so pained a moment in fascism s clinching of power, was one of the most delicate for this dynamic duo. Behind the scenes the opposition made advances toward d Annunzio, urging him to come back into the fray and take on Mussolini, while in the papers it was widely reported that the Comandante had referred to the assassination as a fetida ruina. And in fact the poet made no move. De Felice speculated that he simply wanted to dedicate himself to his art, and yet stressed the significance of timing: in this period, Mussolini followed through on a project that had been underway, the purchase in the government s name of the manuscript of d Annunzio s play La Gloria for the rather impressive sum of , lire.
This was just one of a series of subventions selling manuscripts was an excellent way for writers to make money that would reach five million, thousand lire by In August of the Matteotti summer, the Gloria deal successfully concluded, Rizzo relayed d Annunzio s appreciation of this gesture. No further public statements about the crime were made. In any case, it is an impressive testament to the sort of VIP the poet was in s Italy: Mussolini wasn t paying him to stay at home for he must have had little fear that the Vate would return to the playing field , but merely to keep his mouth shut.
Foreign policy issues of the s would create some friction, too. The poet-soldier s love for France and hatred of Germany and Hitler made the regime fear they would need to silence him as Mussolini moved toward an alliance with the Reich. Whatever the truth of that encounter, it s not at all inconceivable that it was as ambivalent as the rest of their relationship.
La cultura finanziata dal fascismo, Le Lettere, Firenze. Likewise, for as much as Mussolini was all ears when it came to the Comandante s opinions, an expression of opposition, even if reflected upon, might not have been welcome in a moment that was supposed to be celebratory. At the end of the day, theirs was an association weighed down by the baggage that such illustrious men carry wherever they go. Mussolini knew that it was advisable to keep the prestigious d Annunzio happy, or at least quiet.
He knew that one way to do so was to appease his innumerable requests to give this or that person a political appointment or some other employment. He knew, when all was said and done, that d Annunzio was someone to keep an eye on. In his turn, the poet was aware of his own capital, and rarely disdained to spend it. At the same time, he knew that he could be used that, for instance, a personal, adulatory letter he wrote to the duce would end up as third page news. Finally, he knew that he was being spied on: the aforementioned Commissioner Rizzo was an informant, but d Annunzio knew it, befriended him, and took advantage of the alternate line to the duce, sometimes venting the feelings he preferred not to express directly, knowing they would however reach the right ears.
There is no denying that the bond was tortuous, ambiguous, and full of complex or even contradictory feelings; but it would hardly be the first of which this is true, and there is no reason to doubt the fundamental sincerity of the sentiments expressed by either man. Increasingly convinced that the African colonial expedition was a courageous challenge to the imperialism of England and now America an 37 See accounts by Rizzo, D Annunzio e Mussolini, cit.
In the wake of the Matteotti crisis, for instance, he once wrote to d Annunzio regarding political matters, but closed his letter with an appeal, scrivimi, non di politica. He was consistently positive, giving d Annunzio credit, always, where he thought it was due. To Ludwig, he said that three men were responsible for Italy s intervention in the Great War: trade unionist Filippo Corridoni, himself, and the Vate; his drama La Nave, too, had gotten everybody excited about the Navy.
In , when Giugliemo Marconi, president of the Royal Academy of Intellectuals, died, Mussolini pressured d Annunzio to take his place, although the poet had always shunned such an idea; when he finally acquiesced, he did so as una piena testimonianza della mia devozione to a friend. If his son-in-law Galeazzo Ciano didn t perceive him as being particularly moved as they made the journey from Rome to Gardone for the services Mussolini stared out the window and rambled on about all the iron, which littered the sides of the road, going to waste others sources reveal his distress.
He had been up most of the night and had nightmares when he did sleep: Rachele had finally gone to bed at two, but Mussolini paced the marbled halls of Villa Torlonia, barefooted, like an ox. At midnight, , two, five, and six, he called Claretta. It wasn t all for d Annunzio, truth be told, for that day he had heard gossip that his lover was unfaithful and he was tormented by it; but in the wee hours of the morning, he told her once again how sad he was. Pensa, siamo stati insieme per 23 anni, abbiamo combattuto le nostre battaglie. The sight of d Annunzio s body, so cold, dead, finished, touched him, and he was perturbed by its seemingly careless preparation: you could see a shoe, his mouth was left open, and why do they place the hands on the chest?
When his turn came, he d have all the instructions written out, so she could tell them what he wanted. The funeral was poetic, he told her: Beethoven, the lake, a walk through the poplar trees and olive grove. But sad, and it had been painful to see those poor men who struggled to bear the casket and every so often had to stop and catch their breath. This was the duce s question, and his vision of a post-vate world was even a tad apocalyptic: after d Annunzio, he said, everything would be prosa da infimo impero.
Carteggio D Annunzio Mussolini, cit.
In the five-act prose tragedy, we meet Ruggero Flamma in a large and naked room supported by stone pillars; on the architraves of the four doors are sculpted a flame design as the Comandante would later use at Fiume and the protagonist s motto, Vim ex vi Strength from strength. Upstage, a balcony overlooks the piazza where much of the play s important offstage movement takes place.
Flamma and his devoted followers pledge to combat Rome s decrepit dictator, Cesare Bronte, Ciascuno secondo le sue forze, e oltre. The thirst for glory personified in the superfemmina of a man too weak to handle it is the tragedy of the play. As Giovanni Pozza wrote in his review of the reprisal, the piece is the tragedia simbolica delle anime di vincitori e di dominatori che giunti al punto culminante della loro ascensione sono colti da quella vertigine e travolti da quella ebbrezza che si chiama la Gloria.
La Gloria, I. Laura Granatella, Bulzoni, Roma , p. The play ends with her brandishing the bloody dagger on the balcony, the mass below calling for the tyrant s head. Non mi rammollisco: mi indurisco. What s more, while Flamma and Bronte were not the Caesars, Coriolanuses, or Napoleons of history that so awed the duce, certainly it s easy to see in him the intimo dissidio del suo carattere that Mussolini had identified in Napoleon; 58 likewise, both characters were thought to be fictionalized versions of recent historical figures closer to home Felice Cavallotti and Francesco Crispi and such topics in theatre and film most interested 56 One wonders if this is d Annunzio overturning Aeschylus line, spoken by the chorus in The Libation Bearers: Who acts, shall endure a play which, as we ll see further on, inspired La fiaccola sotto il moggio.
Tu vai innanzi a tutte le cose ignote e terribile come se fossero familiari. Mandami al segno. The Vate s entire theatrical project was an attempt at a national and theatrical palingenesis inspired by The Birth of Tragedy, Wagner s notion of the gesamtkunstwerk, and the popular theatre of Romain Rolland, whom d Annunzio had met and established a relationship with in Rachele Mussolini, The Real Mussolini, cit. D Annunzio tra romanzo e teatro. Laterza, Roma , pp Ludwig, Colloqui, cit. Years earlier, though, La Gloria s hero tried to do so as well and failed.
Annamaria Andreoli and G. The mass rumor comes in waves, increasing the tension and punctuating the action, finally instigating it as the plays reaches its bloody conclusion. His inability to perform the ritual of modern politics, in other words, finishes him. In his quest to create a new kind of theatre especially a new kind of tragedy the Vate sought to close the gap between political and theatrical ritual: if politics and art were never separate in his mind, it was also true that he would attempt to bring the theatre fully inside the political realm it s in this regard not surprising that Ruggero Flamma, as Simona 70 Simona Costa, D Annunzio.
Salerno Editrice, Roma , p La Gloria, cit. In this transformation, and in this taking of theatre into the open air, there was a transformation of the character, and function, of theatre itself. It would be a triumph for dramatic poets, who, recapturing the religiosity of the Dionysiac ritual, could once again raise their form to the heights of a primitive dignity, for drama was the only form with which i poeti possano manifestarsi alla folla e darle la rivelazione della Bellezza, comunicarle i sogni virili ed eroici che trasfigurano subitamente la vita. It was, moreover, through the verbal enchantment of the rite that the crowd would be united.
In Effrena s view, as Mary Ann Frese Witt points out, military and poetic action are each a form of conquest enabled by the energy of passion : the slippage between poet and 74 Costa, D Annunzio, cit. Witt dedicates nearly sixty pages to d Annunzio s Nietzschean Tragedy. This fact implicitly and intrinsically links his vision to Mussolini s, and the prominence that the poet s plays would earn on fascist stages undoubtedly had to do with this philosophical political consonance. As I ll address in more detail in chapter three, the men of the theatre who play an important role in the Mussolini, Man of the theatre story all clamored for a revolution of the Italian stage, which had long been dominated by French bourgeois dramas and mediocre imitations of them.
Nemmeno a dirlo, Gabriele D Annunzio. The utter annihilation of the bourgeoisie, in other words. And of the type of theatre concerned with its existence. D Annunzio raised the play to such heights, first, by drawing explicit parallels to the House of Atreus.
He envisioned his protagonist as a modern Electra, in fact including an exergue attributed to her but in reality belonging to the Chorus of The Libation Bearers : You must be hard, give no ground, to win home. Her plans are thwarted by her father, Tibaldo, who takes it upon himself to kill his new wife so as to keep his daughter s hands clean of any damned spots. The finale shows daughter and father collapsing and dying on stage, she of her own volition, having thrust her hand into a bag of vipers in an attempt to achieve a murder-suicide.
What s most poetic, and theatrical, about the play is its atmosphere. Eschilo, Le Tragedie [Mondadori, Milano ], p. At the same time, unsatisfying about La fiaccola sotto il moggio for many was the lack of a cathartic ending; from my point of view, however, this element, rather than a dramaturgical shortcoming, ought to be considered the key to the play.
The complaint refers not so much to the multiple deaths even Gigliola s sickly brother Simonetto dies , which were reminiscent of the great tragedies and make the play the story of the race extinguished, but above all to Gigliola s futile death. Because she is deprived of her chance to kill her mother s murderer, neither she nor the audience get the relief of purgation. She has sacrificed herself to nothing her heroic gesture is essentially worthless, and her own death without redemption.
Mussolini talked about this with Ludwig, who commented that d Annunzio had confessed to have taken on Fiume for the love of action; when Mussolini responded that politics was a means, not an end, Ludwig then asked if the duce would therefore renege on what he once had said: that Il premio per noi sta nella lotta, anche senza vittoria.
On the contrary, Mussolini told him such a notion was at the core of fascist ideology: Noi siamo contro la vita comoda! It s not only in the Dannunzian dramas discussed here, but also in the Greek tragedy Mussolini was so enthusiastic about, that victory is often mutilated: in fact, if there s one dominant aspect of Greek tragedy, it is the battle against an inexorable fate that simply can t be won.
Mussolini had declared that he liked the d Annunzio of this play and of La figlia di Jorio another masterpiece of ritual. D Amico, too, said that La fiaccola was second best only to Jorio. Other critics appreciated the play with more reserve, but the public had a still harder time with it. Mussolini s preference for it is noteworthy in this regard: his tastes were aligned more closely to that of the critics than of the public, which might reveal in addition to a fascination for the themes outlined here, a more sophisticated and literary taste than the 90 Witt, The Search for Modern Tragedy, cit.
For a Mussolini who relished in the struggle as much as in the victory, that d Annunzio s tragedies in the end were a dialectic of striving and suffering may have been exactly what made them appealing. The plays ultimately mused that the time for heroic victory is not yet ripe 93 just like Nietzsche s writing, and just like the duce s analyses of the German thinker.
D Annunzio, too, explored what Mussolini had called questo periodo angoscioso e tragico di crisi che attraversa la coscienza europea, and even if his Supermen didn t win or perhaps better, if his characters failed to become Supermen that was alright, for the same duce who for so long lamented his inability to create, forced still to liquidate the old, would have seen in the Vate s plays familiar troubles. It wasn t in drama that the Superman would be found: it was in the duce himself.
We need not take at face value that Mussolini really would have accepted struggle without victory on the theatrical stage, that was the stuff drama was made of. The political stage was something else. Mussolini Just ten days before Mussolini and the blackshirts marched on Rome, Luigi Pirandello conquered the capital city for himself, with his play Enrico IV.
The victory was particularly sweet, as his masterpiece, Sei personaggi in cerca d autore, hadn t fared so well when it premiered in Rome the year before. A fight famously broke out in the house: among the 92 Valentina Valentini argues that the play was essentially rejected by the public for its modernity, a problem tied explicitly to the fact that the theatergoing public was not as advanced as the literary crowd. An aspect of its modernity, she notes, was its nihilistic vision and cruel depiction of the family depictions diametrically opposed to those that standard bourgeois theatrical fare tended to contain.
Il poema visibile, cit. Alongside and overlapping was the question of the power of art of performance to resolve such conflicts in perception and, indeed, to create a new reality. In Sei personaggi, these troubled creatures come looking for someone who can complete the story their author left unfinished: when a theatrical director takes them on, they have their doubts that the actors will show them as they really are as they each imagine themselves to be. The man called Enrico IV, on the other hand, takes refuge from the pain of lost love in a performance of madness, pretending to believe he is that historical personage after having actually believed so for twelve years thanks to a fall, from a horse, while masquerading as the same.
Unable to live the life he desires, he opts to live in a fictional world where he pretends to think he is the king and everyone else pretends he is, too. Ivano Pupo, Rubbettino, Soveria Mannelli , pp. He showed great interest in the Maestro s plays and activities, wished him success for his upcoming trip to New York, where a special Pirandello season had been planned, and asked him about the fortune his works had found elsewhere abroad.
He even shared his opinion on the works he had most recently been to the theatre to see: he liked Sei personaggi which recovered swiftly from its first Roman outing, garnering acclaim both within and beyond Italy s borders and Enrico IV best; he thought the idea behind La vita che ti diedi, a show that had opened just two weeks earlier, was powerful; and he admitted quite frankly that he didn t like Vestire gli ignudi much at all.
The timing of their visit was anything but coincidental: it functioned as a prince s summoning of a courtier-ambassador, providing instructions, however tacit, on how to behave abroad. Pirandello had previously expressed admiration for the duce, but it was here that Mephistopheles evidently won Faust over. While back in December of 22 the author had wondered if fascism didn t contain an aestheticism that rendered it incapable of being a 97 Ludwig, Colloqui, cit Orio Vergani interviewed Pirandello, who relayed all the duce had said, in L Idea Nazionale, 23 October, , in Interviste a Pirandello, cit.
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Tra radicalismo e fascismo, Salerno, Roma , p. And so, it wouldn t be long before Mephistopheles would come knocking again, and Faust would sign on the dotted line. The signature would come in the form of an open letter, asking for admission to the PNF, just when Mussolini needed help most: in the fall of , in the midst of the Matteotti crisis d Annunzio, it turns out, wasn t the only illustrious one that the duce courted in those days.
On September 17, Pirandello requested his party card in a telegram; two days later, the text of that message was published in the fascist newspaper L Impero: in it, the author wrote that he felt it was the right moment to publicly declare the loyalty he privately felt, and that he would be honored to become the duce s most umile e obbediente gregario.
For the ardent fascist Telesio Interlandi, the act was a response to a vicious attempt, in parte riuscito, di ridurre il Fascismo da fenomeno storico a fenomeno di Interview December , in Interviste a Pirandello, cit. Cited in Providenti, Impolitico, cit. A Biography, trans. He claimed that the dramatist presented himself as a gung-ho blackshirt because he was embarrassed to not be on the list of nominated senators that had just appeared. He said Pirandello had spent twenty years in search of fame like his characters, in search of an author. In Mussolini, he had finally found him.
Hearing that Sem Benelli the playwright who was Rachele s introduction to the theatre had formed the Lega Italica in opposition to Mussolini, Pirandello who neither admired Benelli s writing nor his new political stance had quipped, Verrebbe quasi voglia di inscriversi al fascismo. The comment reached the duce s office, and a few days later Pirandello received a call: the Capo had heard that he wanted to join the PNF, would he please do so right away?
As to the world, he was served somewhat worse than Plato, because the tyrant and his victims were not located beyond the sea, but in his own country.
Etica & Politica / Ethics & Politics
He was still young enough to learn from the shock of the collision, which after ten short hectic months thirty-seven years ago drove him back to his residence, and to settle in his thinking what he had experienced. However that may be, no one before Heidegger saw how much this nature stands opposed to thinking and affects it destructively.
Discourse on Thinking , pp. For the attraction to the tyrannical can be demonstrated theoretically in many of the great thinkers Kant is the great exception.
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