The result of the battle culminated in the French losing most of their economical structural powers to the English and the start of a decline of education. Consequently, the French mentality and behaviors were modified. This rupture in the normative structure led to the African-American Civil Rights Movement which, in turn, brought about changes to the social structure e. This movement against racial inequality, segregation and discrimination instigated the Civil Rights Act of , which banned any type of segregation based on race, color, religion or sex, as well as other changes in federal legislation.
The breakdown of the Soviet Union is an example that can be used to illustrate a simultaneous rupture of the social and normative structures. This event caused major transformations in the economic, political, and social structures rupture to social structure. Simultaneously, a large proportion of the population found themselves in a great economic crisis, which led to disruptions in their usual behaviors and habits, such as working multiple jobs instead of just one rupture of normative structures.
When the normative and the social structures are ruptured regardless of the order in which this occurs , cultural identity will be threatened. There will be a global sense of confusion, ambiguity, and lack of clarity that might motivate individual group members to change their identification with their group.
Depending on society's and the individual's abilities to cope, there are two possible outcomes: stability or inertia. If the society in which DSC has taken place is able to develop coping and adaptation mechanisms—both at the individual and societal levels—stability might be restored. Stability would then be achieved when the social and normative structures however different are brought back to functionality and when cultural identity is clear and no longer under threat. In contrast, if the society and individuals are not able to develop coping mechanisms, society might enter a state of inertia.
In inertia, even though a society in a state of inertia is no longer going through major social changes, the need or desire for change still lingers Sloutsky and Searle-White, This can be due to a DSC that did not, in the end, really change the way a collectivity is ruled or how its citizens are treated Moghaddam and Crystal, ; Moghaddam and Lvina, Knowing about the range of different social contexts such as stability, inertia, incremental change, and DSC as well as the specific characteristics of DSC, has the potential to guide researchers in terms of assessing DSC and its impact on the psychological well-being of ordinary group members.
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Specifically, after establishing a clear typology of social change, including potential theoretical models, it is now possible to move on to the second step of the psychology of social change. In this second step, we need to address whether and how different coping mechanisms determine mediate, moderate the influence of DSC on psychological well-being. This question goes hand in hand with the work of Norris et al. They concluded from more than 60, participants that such events have negative repercussions on participants' lives.
In most of the research they report, social support, economic status, and age were the identified factors that may be associated with a better adaptation to social change. In accordance with Norris et al. The four characteristics I have identified have the potential to become pivotal in meeting this objective.
In sum, the link between social change and well-being is still unclear e. Such an investigation could eventually guide us in designing concrete interventions to help people adapt to the challenges of DSC Rogers, ; Vago, The concept of resilience emerges from the literature as potentially useful for understanding people's coping mechanisms. Resilience is defined as the act of bouncing back in the face of adversity Bonanno, For the specific example of DSC, resilient individuals would be those who have been able to maintain their normal functioning and adapt themselves to adverse situations Masten, ; Curtis and Cicchetti, ; Luthar, ; Masten and Powell, Research has shown that a significant number of people are able to adapt to challenging personal situations e.
However, resilience has mostly been studied within the context of personal changes such as the death of a loved one or a personal trauma Bonanno, Similar to a personal change, this variation in reactions may be due to individual differences in resilience. This highlights the need to consider this variable within the psychology of social change. More concretely, the literature on resilience may prove to be important when linking people's perceptions of the characteristic of DSC to the various paths of recovery e. To illustrate collective resilience, let us consider the case where the normative structure of a society is dissolved and its cultural identity is threatened.
Individuals in this situation would no longer have guidelines and values to individually cope with DSC. Moreover, every individual affected by the change would be in the same negative situation. Consequently, individuals might need to find ways to collectively adapt to the transformations. The processes associated with resilience may thus differ in situations of personal vs. I therefore believe it is important to explore whether the adaptation mechanisms are the same in a context of DSC where social support is not readily available. In order to speak of a real psychology of social change, we must be able to actually study social change and its consequences.
On the one hand, correlational designs conducted in the field are necessary to capture people's firsthand experience with DSC. They are however limited by their design that prevents claims of causality. They are also known to be demanding in terms of both human and financial resources, and may well be dangerous at times for researchers. Moreover, they require an intimate knowledge of the culture such as the language as well as contacts within the community to facilitate the research and collaboration process.
On the other hand, laboratory experiments are necessary to establish the controlled conditions needed to understand associations between the characteristics of social change and the consequences. Indeed, social change typically entails various elements such as historical processes, a collective perspective, and associated cultural elements Moghaddam and Crystal, which must be taken into consideration in order to replicate their impact in an artificial setting.
For example, the impact of the Tohoku tsunami in Japan or the Syrian conflict cannot be recreated in their entirety in a laboratory; nor can all the characteristic of social change be taken into consideration in a laboratory study designed to assess the impact s of social change. However, if an array of studies using different characteristic of DSC were to be conducted or a combination of multiple characteristic , the convergence of the results would make us able to better understand and thereby predict the impact of DSC on individuals and communities.
At the very least in a laboratory, researchers can expose participants to imagined changes through a scenario or a video that would include, in the experimental condition, one or more of the four characteristics of DSC Pelletier-Dumas et al. If the scientific community accepts that experimental studies will not exactly mirror DSC, but instead test some of the characteristics in a large number of experiments, there is potential for laboratory experiments to bring an important contribution that would eventually allow a generalization to the real world for examples see Betsch et al.
The difficulties of conducting research on social change are, however, amplified by the challenge of obtaining ethical consent in a manner that allows for timely research. In terms of experimental manipulations of DSC, obtaining the ethical board's consent can be tedious. Indeed, according to some authors Kelman, ; Bok, ; Clarke, ; Herrera, ; Pittenger, deceiving participants is difficult to justify ethically.
This objection on the use of deception can undermine any attempt to seriously study DSC, as deception can be a valuable methodological asset Bortolotti and Mameli, , especially with such an elusive subject. Furthermore, research on new grounds require new techniques and methods on which ethicists can put limits, to ensure that they do not cause harm to participants Root Wolpe, As with any new technology, methods focused on inducing dramatic-like changes can be perceived as having unsuspected risks.
In order to truly understand the interplay between individuals and their context, social psychological theories must take into account that we live in a constantly changing world. Through increasing the focus on social change, we could combine, on the one hand, sociology's emphasis on the importance of social change with, on the other hand, psychology's emphasis on the importance of complex individual processes.
As a result, my theoretical proposal aims at bringing together sociology, where social change is central, and psychology, where rigorous scientific methods allow us to study the psychological processes of individuals living in changing social contexts. In general, more research on the concept of social change is needed so that we can help predict, prevent, and minimize the negative impact of social change.
If psychologists and sociologists work together to move toward developing a psychology of social change, perhaps we could come to better understand and help people, like Zoia, who lost almost everything they had, consequently improving the quality of millions of lives experiencing DSC.
RdlS thought and developed the ideas, as well as wrote the article as sole author. Research assistants were paid to find and read the abstracts of all articles reviewed in this manuscript.
The author declares that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. I wish to thank all my colleagues and the members of the Social Change and Identity Lab for their comments and help. They have heard me talk about social change for the last 10 years and have never stopped encouraging me to pursue these ideas. These people continue to inspire me every day.
I am grateful to the editor and the three evaluators for their insightful comments. Taylor for their help during different steps of the preparation of this manuscript. Finally, I want to thank Nada Kadhim who was patient enough to coordinate the material and the team—including me—at all stages. An event has the potential to bring social change Sewell, , be it incremental or dramatic.
In contrast to social change, with the event, the disruption of the normal might only be temporary and not significant in time. From my understanding of the literature, there are as many conceptions of social structure as there are scientists working on that concept. Here, the definitions often described normative behaviors or the roles of individuals rather than the role played by social institutions e.
This duality lunched a debate in sociology that was reflected not only in Gidden's work but also in others sociologists that have devoted their writings to defining social structure e. For example, Porpora reports four principal ways of conceptualizing social structure that reflect either of these conceptions. To add to that complexity, some researchers e.
Because of the lack of clarity, or maybe because the definition of social structure points to different aspects of the social structure, scientists often avoid defining social structure in their papers, and thereby contribute to the general confusion. Not that the other aspects or levels of social structure are not important e.
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This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Millions of people worldwide are affected by dramatic social change DSC. Keywords: identity, inertia, normative structure, social change, social structure, stability, pace of change, psychology of social change. Table 1 The typology of social change. Social contexts Definition Stability A situation where an event, regardless of its pace, does not affect the equilibrium of a society's social and normative structures nor the cultural identity of group members.
Wayne F. Cascio
Inertia A situation where an event, regardless of its pace, does not either reinstate the equilibrium of a society's social and normative structures or clarify the cultural identity of group members. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Social change in sociology and psychology Today, the field of sociology is at the forefront of social change theory and research, with a particular focus upon the factors that constitute and are prerequisites to social change.
Table 2 Theories of social change in sociology. Theories Perspective on social change Key authors Evolutionary theory Society moves in a linear direction from a simple to a more complex structure. Society is in a constant state of disequilibrium. Marx and Engels, Functionalist theory Society is in a constant state of equilibrium. When a change occurs in one part of society, adjustments are made. Social change occurs when the equilibrium is compromised due to the rapidity with which events occur. Table 3 Theories and perspectives addressing social change in social psychology. First, SIT is a theory of social structure that is based on perceptions of legitimacy, stability, and permeability.
Second, SIT proposes identity management strategies such as collective action whereby minority groups aim to maintain or acquire a positive and distinctive social identity. First, collective relative deprivation occurs when people compare their group to other groups and feel that their group is worse off which will motivate them to improve their status by means of collective action.
Second, in times of DSC, people are usually confronted with a unique situation that results in confusion and the loss of social cues. It is therefore easier and more relevant for them to compare their group's present situation to their group's status at another well-defined time period, than to compare their group with another group. Recent research proposes the use of a historical trajectory when assessing one's group's collective relative deprivation.
Research in this field has demonstrated that individuals who simultaneously identify with their culture of origin and with the receiving group's culture and also desire contact with both cultures experience the highest levels of well-being. It's more a theory of stability than of social change. Both advantaged and disadvantaged individuals endorse system-justifying ideologies, to preserve the existing social structure. Jost et al. Steele et al. Goodwin, Table 4 Theories addressing social change in subfields of psychology. Theory Perspective of social change Key authors Cultural and evolutionary psychology Focuses on how social change and human biology are linked and aims to identify how social change influences human genetics and the way humans adapt to these changes.
Feldman and Laland, ; Laland et al. Three main themes emerge from this field: how to successfully implement organizational change, how to limit the negative impact of organizational change and understand the psychological processes of people who are confronting organizational change. Limitations of current research and conceptualization of social change in sociology and psychology As indicated in the summary tables, both contemporary and traditional theorists in sociology and psychology have addressed social change through a variety of macro sociological or societal lenses, and equally from a plethora of micro, psychological, or individual perspectives.
Constructing a typology of social change: the characteristics of DSC Two separate databases from sociology and psychology were targeted to collate relevant peer-reviewed publications: Sociology Abstracts and PsycInfo. Table 5 Number of abstracts and articles that satisfied the specified inclusion criteria.
PsycInfo Sociology abstracts Other Evaluated abstracts Accepted abstracts Missing articles 12 16 Read and accepted articles Other articles and books 50 Total Table 6 Characteristics of dramatic social change. Characteristics Definition Occurrences 1. The pace of change The speed at which an event impacts a collectivity. Rupture in the social structure A break with the past so that even core aspects of society such as social institutions have to be reconstructed; a society undergoes a complete transformation.
Rupture in the normative structure A break with the past in terms of the core behaviors of the group members that now have to be modified significantly in order to achieve collective goals. Cultural identity threat A serious threat to identification and to the clarity of the shared beliefs, values, attitudes, and behavioral scripts associated with one's group. The pace of change The first characteristic that emerged regards the pace , which could either be slow or rapid, and is defined as the speed at which an event impacts a collectivity. Rupture in the social structure The second characteristic of DSC that emerges from my review regards a rupture in the social structure of a collectivity or a group.
Rupture in the normative structure The third characteristic of DSC that emerged from the literature is the rupture in the normative structure of society. Threat to cultural identity The fourth characteristic of social change is threats to the cultural identity of a group. Inertia In contrast with stability, a context where there is inertia involves a situation that does affect a large number of people, if not most of the people composing a society.
Consequences of DSC Knowing about the range of different social contexts such as stability, inertia, incremental change, and DSC as well as the specific characteristics of DSC, has the potential to guide researchers in terms of assessing DSC and its impact on the psychological well-being of ordinary group members. Conducting research on social change In order to speak of a real psychology of social change, we must be able to actually study social change and its consequences. Conclusion In order to truly understand the interplay between individuals and their context, social psychological theories must take into account that we live in a constantly changing world.
Author contributions RdlS thought and developed the ideas, as well as wrote the article as sole author. Conflict of interest statement The author declares that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
Footnotes 1 Key sociology readings, such as Human Societies: An Introduction to Macrosociology Nolan and Lenski, , The Sociology of Social Change Sztompka, , and Social Change Weinstein, , offer an in-depth description of these theories that were beyond the scope of the present review. References Abrams D. How does macroeconomic change affect social identity and vice versa? Issues Public Policy 14 , — Temporal comparison theory. Attributions about systems in slow vs. Integration of social identities in the self: toward a cognitive-developmental model.
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Social change , in Encyclopedia of Sociology, 2nd Edn. The spontaneous emergence of conventions: an experimental study of structural evolution. Human development in the context of social change: introduction. Child Dev. Exploring the implications of social change for human development: perspectives, issues and future directions. Social Change in the Modern Era. Justifying deception in social science research. Paris: Carilian-Goeury et Dalmont.
Where is social structure in personality research? A feminist analysis of publication trends. Women Q. Social change and social action. Negotiating Adolescence in Times of Social Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Moving research on resilience into the 21st century: theoretical and methodological considerations in examining the biological contributors to resilience. Genocide as a problem of national and international law: the World War I Armenian case and its contemporary legal ramifications. Yale J. Law 12 , — The historical and legal interconnections between the Armenian genocide and the Jewish Holocaust: from impunity to retributive justice.
Law 23 , — Testing the subtractive pattern of cultural identification. Relative deprivation and social identity in times of dramatic social change: the case of nurses. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; , — Dramatic social change: a social psychological perspective. Challenges of applying a student-centered approach to learning in the context of education in Kyrgyzstan. Reconceptualizing relative deprivation in the context of dramatic social change: the challenge confronting the people of Kyrgyzstan.
Dramatic social change in Russia and Mongolia: connecting relative deprivation to social identity. Cross Cult. Achieving social change: a matter of all for one? Issues 71 , — A cosmopolitan approach to the explanation of social change: social mechanisms, processes, modernity.
The good and bad of social change: ambivalence toward activist groups. Justice Res. Social implications of the Internet. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France. Negotiating social identity when contexts change: maintaining identification and responding to threat. Gene-culture coevolutionary theory.
Trends Ecol. Effects of social change on mental health. Orthopsychiatry 34 , 3— Introduction to Sociology, 8th Edn. The interaction order. The power of the pill: oral contraceptives and women's career and marriage decisions. Measuring change and persistence in human affairs: types of change generated by OD designs. Age and social support perception in Eastern Europe: social change and support in four rapidly changing countries. In many countries, clinical psychology is a regulated mental health profession. The emerging field of disaster psychology see crisis intervention involves professionals who respond to large-scale traumatic events.
The work performed by clinical psychologists tends to be influenced by various therapeutic approaches, all of which involve a formal relationship between professional and client usually an individual, couple, family, or small group. Typically, these approaches encourage new ways of thinking, feeling, or behaving. Four major theoretical perspectives are psychodynamic , cognitive behavioral , existential—humanistic , and systems or family therapy.
There has been a growing movement to integrate the various therapeutic approaches, especially with an increased understanding of issues regarding culture, gender, spirituality, and sexual orientation. With the advent of more robust research findings regarding psychotherapy, there is evidence that most of the major therapies have equal effectiveness, with the key common element being a strong therapeutic alliance.
New editions over time have increased in size and focused more on medical language. Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations. The work of child psychologists such as Lev Vygotsky , Jean Piaget , and Jerome Bruner has been influential in creating teaching methods and educational practices. Educational psychology is often included in teacher education programs in places such as North America, Australia, and New Zealand.
School psychology combines principles from educational psychology and clinical psychology to understand and treat students with learning disabilities; to foster the intellectual growth of gifted students; to facilitate prosocial behaviors in adolescents; and otherwise to promote safe, supportive, and effective learning environments.
School psychologists are trained in educational and behavioral assessment, intervention, prevention, and consultation, and many have extensive training in research. Industrialists soon brought the nascent field of psychology to bear on the study of scientific management techniques for improving workplace efficiency.
This field was at first called economic psychology or business psychology ; later, industrial psychology , employment psychology , or psychotechnology. With funding from the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Fund and guidance from Australian psychologist Elton Mayo , Western Electric experimented on thousands of factory workers to assess their responses to illumination, breaks, food, and wages. The researchers came to focus on workers' responses to observation itself, and the term Hawthorne effect is now used to describe the fact that people work harder when they think they're being watched.
The name industrial and organizational psychology I—O arose in the s and became enshrined as the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology , Division 14 of the American Psychological Association, in Personnel psychology, a subfield of I—O psychology, applies the methods and principles of psychology in selecting and evaluating workers. I—O psychology's other subfield, organizational psychology , examines the effects of work environments and management styles on worker motivation, job satisfaction , and productivity. One role for psychologists in the military is to evaluate and counsel soldiers and other personnel.
In the U. S Army psychology includes psychological screening, clinical psychotherapy, suicide prevention , and treatment for post-traumatic stress, as well as other aspects of health and workplace psychology such as smoking cessation. Psychologists may also work on a diverse set of campaigns known broadly as psychological warfare. Psychologically warfare chiefly involves the use of propaganda to influence enemy soldiers and civilians. In the case of so-called black propaganda the propaganda is designed to seem like it originates from a different source.
Medical facilities increasingly employ psychologists to perform various roles. A prominent aspect of health psychology is the psychoeducation of patients: instructing them in how to follow a medical regimen. Health psychologists can also educate doctors and conduct research on patient compliance. Psychologists in the field of public health use a wide variety of interventions to influence human behavior. These range from public relations campaigns and outreach to governmental laws and policies.
Psychologists study the composite influence of all these different tools in an effort to influence whole populations of people. Black American psychologists Kenneth and Mamie Clark studied the psychological impact of segregation and testified with their findings in the desegregation case Brown v. Board of Education Positive psychology is the study of factors which contribute to human happiness and well-being, focusing more on people who are currently healthy. In , Clinical Psychological Review published a special issue devoted to positive psychological interventions, such as gratitude journaling and the physical expression of gratitude.
Positive psychological interventions have been limited in scope, but their effects are thought to be superior to that of placebos , especially with regard to helping people with body image problems. Quantitative psychological research lends itself to the statistical testing of hypotheses. Although the field makes abundant use of randomized and controlled experiments in laboratory settings, such research can only assess a limited range of short-term phenomena.
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Thus, psychologists also rely on creative statistical methods to glean knowledge from clinical trials and population data. The measurement and operationalization of important constructs is an essential part of these research designs. A true experiment with random allocation of subjects to conditions allows researchers to make strong inferences about causal relationships. In an experiment, the researcher alters parameters of influence, called independent variables , and measures resulting changes of interest, called dependent variables. Prototypical experimental research is conducted in a laboratory with a carefully controlled environment.
Repeated-measures experiments are those which take place through intervention on multiple occasions. In research on the effectiveness of psychotherapy , experimenters often compare a given treatment with placebo treatments, or compare different treatments against each other. Treatment type is the independent variable. The dependent variables are outcomes, ideally assessed in several ways by different professionals. Quasi-experimental design refers especially to situations precluding random assignment to different conditions.
Researchers can use common sense to consider how much the nonrandom assignment threatens the study's validity. Psychologists will compare the achievement of children attending phonics and whole language classes. Experimental researchers typically use a statistical hypothesis testing model which involves making predictions before conducting the experiment, then assessing how well the data supports the predictions. These predictions may originate from a more abstract scientific hypothesis about how the phenomenon under study actually works. Analysis of variance ANOVA statistical techniques are used to distinguish unique results of the experiment from the null hypothesis that variations result from random fluctuations in data.
Statistical surveys are used in psychology for measuring attitudes and traits, monitoring changes in mood, checking the validity of experimental manipulations, and for other psychological topics. Most commonly, psychologists use paper-and-pencil surveys. However, surveys are also conducted over the phone or through e-mail. Web-based surveys are increasingly used to conveniently reach many subjects. Neuropsychological tests , such as the Wechsler scales and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test , are mostly questionnaires or simple tasks used which assess a specific type of mental function in the respondent.
These can be used in experiments, as in the case of lesion experiments evaluating the results of damage to a specific part of the brain. Observational studies analyze uncontrolled data in search of correlations; multivariate statistics are typically used to interpret the more complex situation. Cross-sectional observational studies use data from a single point in time, whereas longitudinal studies are used to study trends across the life span. Longitudinal studies track the same people, and therefore detect more individual, rather than cultural, differences.
However, they suffer from lack of controls and from confounding factors such as selective attrition the bias introduced when a certain type of subject disproportionately leaves a study. Exploratory data analysis refers to a variety of practices which researchers can use to visualize and analyze existing sets of data. In Peirce's three modes of inference , exploratory data analysis corresponds to abduction , or hypothesis formation. A classic and popular tool used to relate mental and neural activity is the electroencephalogram EEG , a technique using amplified electrodes on a person's scalp to measure voltage changes in different parts of the brain.
Hans Berger , the first researcher to use EEG on an unopened skull, quickly found that brains exhibit signature " brain waves ": electric oscillations which correspond to different states of consciousness. Researchers subsequently refined statistical methods for synthesizing the electrode data, and identified unique brain wave patterns such as the delta wave observed during non-REM sleep. Newer functional neuroimaging techniques include functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography , both of which track the flow of blood through the brain.
These technologies provide more localized information about activity in the brain and create representations of the brain with widespread appeal. They also provide insight which avoids the classic problems of subjective self-reporting. It remains challenging to draw hard conclusions about where in the brain specific thoughts originate—or even how usefully such localization corresponds with reality.
However, neuroimaging has delivered unmistakable results showing the existence of correlations between mind and brain. Some of these draw on a systemic neural network model rather than a localized function model. Psychiatric interventions such as transcranial magnetic stimulation and drugs also provide information about brain—mind interactions. Psychopharmacology is the study of drug-induced mental effects. Computational modeling is a tool used in mathematical psychology and cognitive psychology to simulate behavior. Since modern computers process information quickly, simulations can be run in a short time, allowing for high statistical power.
Modeling also allows psychologists to visualize hypotheses about the functional organization of mental events that couldn't be directly observed in a human. Computational neuroscience uses mathematical models to simulate the brain. Another method is symbolic modeling, which represents many mental objects using variables and rules.
Other types of modeling include dynamic systems and stochastic modeling. Animal experiments aid in investigating many aspects of human psychology, including perception, emotion, learning, memory, and thought, to name a few. In the s, Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov famously used dogs to demonstrate classical conditioning. Non-human primates , cats, dogs, pigeons, rats , and other rodents are often used in psychological experiments. Ideally, controlled experiments introduce only one independent variable at a time, in order to ascertain its unique effects upon dependent variables.
These conditions are approximated best in laboratory settings. In contrast, human environments and genetic backgrounds vary so widely, and depend upon so many factors, that it is difficult to control important variables for human subjects. There are pitfalls in generalizing findings from animal studies to humans through animal models.
Comparative psychology refers to the scientific study of the behavior and mental processes of non-human animals, especially as these relate to the phylogenetic history, adaptive significance, and development of behavior. Research in this area explores the behavior of many species, from insects to primates.
It is closely related to other disciplines that study animal behavior such as ethology. Research designed to answer questions about the current state of affairs such as the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of individuals is known as descriptive research. Descriptive research can be qualitative or quantitative in orientation. Qualitative research is descriptive research that is focused on observing and describing events as they occur, with the goal of capturing all of the richness of everyday behavior and with the hope of discovering and understanding phenomena that might have been missed if only more cursory examinations have been made.
Qualitative psychological research methods include interviews , first-hand observation, and participant observation. Creswell identifies five main possibilities for qualitative research, including narrative, phenomenology , ethnography , case study , and grounded theory. Qualitative researchers  sometimes aim to enrich interpretations or critiques of symbols , subjective experiences, or social structures. Sometimes hermeneutic and critical aims can give rise to quantitative research, as in Erich Fromm 's study of Nazi voting [ citation needed ] or Stanley Milgram 's studies of obedience to authority.
Just as Jane Goodall studied chimpanzee social and family life by careful observation of chimpanzee behavior in the field, psychologists conduct naturalistic observation of ongoing human social, professional, and family life. Sometimes the participants are aware they are being observed, and other times the participants do not know they are being observed. Strict ethical guidelines must be followed when covert observation is being carried out. In both the public and private sectors, stakeholders often want to know whether the programs they are funding, implementing, voting for, receiving or objecting to are producing the intended effect.
While program evaluation first focuses around this definition, important considerations often include how much the program costs per participant, how the program could be improved, whether the program is worthwhile, whether there are better alternatives, if there are unintended outcomes, and whether the program goals are appropriate and useful.
The field of metascience has revealed significant problems with the methodology of psychological research. Psychological research suffers from high bias,  low reproducibility ,  and widespread misuse use of statistics. Fanelli argues that this is because researchers in "softer" sciences have fewer constraints to their conscious and unconscious biases. Over the subsequent few years, a replication crisis in psychology was identified, where it was publicly noted that many notable findings in the field had not been replicated and with some researchers being accused of outright fraud in their results.
Focus on the replication crisis has led to other renewed efforts in the discipline to re-test important findings,   and in response to concerns about publication bias and p -hacking , more than psychology journals have adopted result-blind peer review where studies are accepted not on the basis of their findings and after the studies are completed, but before the studies are conducted and upon the basis of the methodological rigor of their experimental designs and the theoretical justifications for their statistical analysis techniques before data collection or analysis is done.
Some critics view statistical hypothesis testing as misplaced. Psychologist and statistician Jacob Cohen wrote in that psychologists routinely confuse statistical significance with practical importance, enthusiastically reporting great certainty in unimportant facts. He complained that psychologists had no basis for assuming psychological processes to be universal and generalizing research findings to the rest of the global population. In , Henrich, Heine, and Norenzayan reported a systemic bias in conducting psychology studies with participants from "WEIRD" western , educated, industrialized, rich and democratic societies.
Arnett , Altmaier and Hall , and Morgan-Consoli et al. Kurtis, Adams, Grabe, and Else-Quest describe a transnational feminist psychology also called transnational psychology that applies transnational feminist lenses to the field of psychology to study, understand, and address the impact of colonization, imperialism, and globalization. In order to counter the Western bias in the field of psychology, Kurtis and Adams suggested that people in the non-Western, "Majority World" areas where the majority of the world's population lives , be viewed as resources for revising traditional psychological science.
They proposed applying the principles of transnational feminism , developed through interdisciplinary work in postcolonial and feminist studies, and using a context-sensitive cultural psychology lens to reconsider, de-naturalize, and de-universalize psychological science. Some observers perceive a gap between scientific theory and its application—in particular, the application of unsupported or unsound clinical practices. Ethical standards in the discipline have changed over time. Some famous past studies are today considered unethical and in violation of established codes the Canadian Code of Conduct for Research Involving Humans, and the Belmont Report.
The most important contemporary standards are informed and voluntary consent. Later, most countries and scientific journals adopted the Declaration of Helsinki. All of these measures encouraged researchers to obtain informed consent from human participants in experimental studies. A number of influential studies led to the establishment of this rule; such studies included the MIT and Fernald School radioisotope studies, the Thalidomide tragedy , the Willowbrook hepatitis study, and Stanley Milgram 's studies of obedience to authority.
University psychology departments have ethics committees dedicated to the rights and well-being of research subjects. Researchers in psychology must gain approval of their research projects before conducting any experiment to protect the interests of human participants and laboratory animals. This code has guided the formation of licensing laws in most American states. It has changed multiple times over the decades since its adoption. In , the APA revised its policies on advertising and referral fees to negotiate the end of an investigation by the Federal Trade Commission. The incarnation was the first to distinguish between "aspirational" ethical standards and "enforceable" ones.
Some of the ethical issues considered most important are the requirement to practice only within the area of competence, to maintain confidentiality with the patients, and to avoid sexual relations with them. Another important principle is informed consent , the idea that a patient or research subject must understand and freely choose a procedure they are undergoing.
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Current ethical guidelines state that using non-human animals for scientific purposes is only acceptable when the harm physical or psychological done to animals is outweighed by the benefits of the research. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Phycology , Physiology , or Psychiatry. Study of mental functions and behaviours. Basic types. Applied psychology. Main article: History of psychology. See also: List of psychology organizations. Play media. Main article: Social psychology. See also: Social psychology sociology.
Main article: Motivation. Main article: Developmental psychology. Main article: Behavioral genetics.
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Further information: Outline of psychology , List of psychology disciplines , Applied psychology , and Subfields of psychology. Main articles: Educational psychology and School psychology. Main articles: Psychological research and List of psychological research methods. Main article: Experiment. See also: Computational cognition. For other uses, see Weird. Psychology Today. Psychology: Six perspectives pp.
Worth Publishers, Indeed, cognitive-behavioral therapists counsel their clients to become aware of maladaptive thought patterns, the nature of which the clients previously had not been conscious. Aps Observer. For instance, medicine draws from psychology most heavily through neurology and psychiatry, whereas the social sciences draw directly from most of the specialties within psychology.
Introduction to psychology: Gateways to mind and behavior 12th ed. Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning.
About APA. Retrieved 20 October Retrieved 10 December Edited by Andrew M. Oxford University Press Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. Gregory ed. Psychological Review. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Early psychological thought: Ancient accounts of mind and soul. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger.
In: Perspectives on Psychological Science , Nr. Gundlach, "Germany", in Baker ed. Benjamin, Jr. James Goodwin, "United States", in Baker ed. Pavlov: An overview of his life and psychological work". American Psychologist. In fact, in the period between and , the Rockefellers were almost the sole support of sex research in the United States. The decisions made by their scientific advisers about the nature of the research to be supported and how it was conducted, as well as the topics eligible for research support, shaped the whole field of sex research and, in many ways, still continue to support it.
One graduate of the Record Office training program wrote, 'I hope to serve the cause by infiltrating eugenics into the minds of teachers. It may interest you to know that each student who takes psychology here works up his family history and plots his family tree. In the case of psychotherapy, he defined health in terms of blood, strong will, proficiency, discipline, Zucht und Ordnung , community, heroic bearing, and physical fitness.
Schultz-Hencke also took the opportunity in to criticize psychoanalysis for providing an unfortunate tendency toward the exculpation of the criminal. Psychoanalysis also attracted the interest of Soviet psychology as a materialist trend that had challenged the credentials of classical introspective psychology. The reluctance of the pre-Revolutionary establishment to propagate psychoanalysis also played a positive role in the post-Revolutionary years; it was a field uncompromised by ties to old-regime science.
Leading Marxist philosophers earlier associated with psychology—including Yuri Frankfurt, Nikolai Karev, and Ivan Luppol—were executed in prison camps. The same fate awaited Alexei Gastev and Isaak Shipilrein. Those who survived lived in an atmosphere of total suspicion. Books and newspapers were constantly being recalled from libraries to rid them of 'obsolete' names and references. This approach may be traced back to the assertion of Wilhelm Humboldt that it is not man who has language as an attribute, but rather language that 'possesses' man.
This new Soviet psychology leaned heavily on Lenin's theory of reflection, which was unearthed in his two volumes posthumously published in Toward the late twenties, a group of Soviet research psychologists headed by Vygotskii, along with Luria and Leont'ev, laid the groundwork for a Marxist-Leninist approach to psychic development. Fowler, "Professional Organizations", in Weiner ed. Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions , 1st. Psychiatric Bulletin. Retrieved 20 April Affective neuroscience: The foundations of human and animal emotions.
New York: Oxford University Press, p. For psychology, Grimshaw discussed behaviorism's goals of modification, and suggested that behaviorist principles reinforced a hierarchical position between controller and controlled and that behaviorism was in principle an antidemocratic program. Zola, "Biological Psychology", in Weiner ed. Nelson, "Volume Preface", in Weiner ed. New York: Prentice Hall. Behavior Genetics. The Encyclopedia of Clinical Psychology. Skinner's Verbal Behavior is alive and well on the 50th anniversary of its publication".
The Psychological Record. Edited by S. Foulkes , G. This volume is part of a reissue of a selection of those important works which have…. Strategic Interventions for People in Crisis, Trauma, and Disaster enables therapists to walk into difficult situations with a thorough understanding of interactional dynamics and a plan of action. With the stressful turbulence of our present culture, more and more clinicians are called upon to….
Edited by David Cooper. Edited by Maxwell Jones. By Charlotte MacKenzie. The madhouse often figures prominently in popular conceptions of the nineteenth century, yet little is known about the realities of private institutions. In Psychiatry for the Rich, Charlotte MacKenzie examines the history of the asylum at Ticehurst in Sussex to explore the social history of…. Edited by Linda Gunsberg , Paul Hymowitz. The Handbook of Divorce and Custody brings together mental health professionals and forensic specialists dedicated to working in the legal arena with families in crisis.
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Dramatic increases in the rates….
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