In , he was elected to the Russian Academy of Sciences.

## Philippe de La Cotardière

Vadim is possibly best known for the Greisen—Zatsepin—Kuzmin effect. In , he and Georgiy Zatsepin and, independently, Kenneth Greisen, predicted that the spectrum of cosmic rays should be suppressed at the highest energies as a result of scattering off the cosmic microwave background.

Observation of this cut-off would imply that the highest-energy cosmic rays originate in the nearby universe, opening up the experimental search for sources, while the absence of the cut-off would signify new physics. Studies of the GZK effect went on to determine the direction of research in cosmic-ray physics for decades, and while the GZK suppression has since been observed, the identification of powerful cosmic accelerators is still a priority in astroparticle physics.

The results played a key role in proving that the solar neutrino puzzle cannot be solved by modifications of the solar model, and pointed instead to the real culprit: neutrino oscillations. Vadim also made many fundamental contributions to the cosmology of the early universe. In pioneering papers, independently of Andrei Sakharov but at about the same time, he realised that the baryon asymmetry of the universe could be explained by particle physics. He also proposed that the necessary baryon-number non-conservation could be observed in laboratory experiments on neutron—antineutron oscillations.

One of his best-known papers, written with Valery Rubakov and Mikhail Shaposhnikov, later pointed out that the necessary condition for baryogenesis — rapid-baryon-number non-conservation — is already satisfied in the Standard Model of elementary particles and does not require any new hypothetical interactions.

In recent years, Vadim worked on the cosmological puzzles of dark matter and dark energy. He suggested that dark matter and baryon asymmetry can appear together, in one process, therefore explaining the balance of dark and visible matter in the universe.

Together with Rubakov and Igor Tkachev, he introduced superheavy dark matter, which opens the window to trans-Planckian physics and has deep connections to the inflationary birth of the universe. Vadim had great sense of humour — his friends loved being victims of his innocent spoofs.

### Cosmologie A L Usage Du Pieton

He was fond of camping and trout fishing at the lakes of Karelia, and mushroom hunting in the forests near Moscow. He was a spirited painter, and many of his friends possess his artworks, preserving memories of Vadim as he was at the time. Our thoughts go to his family and friends, and the many others who shared important parts of their professional lives with Vadim.

His death is a great loss to the global particle-physics community and to Russian science.

- Chinese Strategic Thought toward Asia (Strategic Thought in Northeast Asia).
- Generations: A Century of Women Speak about Their Lives.
- Géomécanique.

He was inseparably linked with the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics ITEP where he arrived as a postgraduate student in and worked there until his last day. In the field of strong interactions, the famous Okun—Pomeranchuk theorem on the equality of cross-sections for scattering particles from the same isomultiplet at asymptotically high energies was proved in The physics of weak interactions was his favourite subject. Okun also conceived a new field of research at the intersection of particle physics, cosmology and astrophysics.

They developed a method for calculating the relic abundance of elementary particles during the expansion of the universe. They performed a calculation of free-quark concentration. Non-observation of free quarks was one of the arguments for quark confinement. The approach that emerged from this paper now plays a crucial role in searches for solutions to the origin of dark matter in the universe. Vacuum-domain walls investigated by Okun in were the first macroscopic objects of QFT that could determine the evolution of the universe.

## Géomécanique – LMS

Okun had an extraordinary pedagogical talent. Due to his deep understanding of physics, he had the unique ability to put even the most intricate theoretical constructions in simple terms. Many generations of physicists studied particle physics with his textbooks Weak Interactions of Elementary Particles and Leptons and Quarks , The calculation can be directly run and the results stored in text files can be visualized on various graphs plotted automatically, showing in particular the mobilized friction with respect to the soil bearing capacity , the stresses in the pile with respect to the pile structural resistance and the deformations, for a given thermal loading.

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