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Beltane (The Thea Hartsong Chronicles) Author: Thea Hartsong

I quote the following by Grinnell. In his discussion of the Pawnee belief in the Great Spirit, whom they call Tirawa, he says: "Tirawa is an intangible spirit, omnipotent and beneficent. He pervades the universe, and is a Supreme Ruler. Upon His will depends everything that happens. He can bring good or bad; can give success or failure. Everything rests with Him. When food is eaten, a small portion is placed on the ground [or in the fire] as a sacrifice to Him.

Other Tribes, each in its own langue, acknowledge the one Great Spirit. Some superficial observers maintain that the Indians were Sun-worshippers. To this, Ohiyesa, the cultured Sioux, replies: "The Indian no more worshipped the sun than the Christian adores the Cross. Catlin writes of the primitive Indians on the Missouri: "The North American Indians are nowhere idolaters - they appeal at once to the Great Spirit, and know of no mediator, either personal or symbolical. Their breadth of view and complete toleration are reflected in a saying attributed to Wabasha and Redjacket: "If any man do anything, sincerely believing that thereby he is worshipping the Great Spirit, he is worshipping the Great Spirit, and his worship must be treated with respect, so long as he is not trespassing on the rights of others.

Treat with respect such things as he holds sacred. Do not force your religion on anyone. The Redman's religion is not a matter of certain days and set observances, but is apart of his every thought and his daily life. Many years ago in Montana, I heard a missionary severely rebuke an Indian for driving his team on Sunday. The Indian looked puzzled, as he was merely minding his business and caring for his family. The missionary reiterated that this was the Lord's Day. At last a light dawned on the Indian.

He glanced up with a gleam in his eye and answered, "Oh, I see. Your God comes only one day a week; my God is with me every day and all the time. The missionary used violent language, and threatened jail and soldiers if the Indians did not cut off their long hair. I defended the Indians and pointed out that not only Benjamin Franklin and George Washington wore their hair long, but the Lord Jesus Himself did - and finally, that Samson made the ruinous mistake of his life when he allowed them to cut off his long hair.

A recent book by Long Lance gives some helpful light on Indian thought and worship. The next morning the White minister at the Hudson's Bay Post sent word to the Indians that he was coming over to visit them. The Suksiseoketuk told us that he was going to tell us about the Whiteman's Wakantonka, his Great Spirit. The medicine man got out his drum, and soon we were ready to receive him. Our Chief went out and met the minister and shook his hand, and then took him over to meet our minister, the medicine man.

He told our medicine man that he was preaching something not worth while. He said: " 'I didn't mean for you people to fix up like this; I meant for you to wash the paint off your faces and put your medicine drums away. There is only one God in Heaven, and I am here to tell you about Him.

He made a long speech. He said that the Indians must lay down their arms and live peacefully alongside the Whiteman who was coming into his country. He said: " 'Why do you tell us to be good? We Indians are not bad; you White people may be, but we are not. We do not steal, except when our horses have been raided; we do not tell lies; we take care of our old and our poor when they are helpless. We do not need that which you tell us about. When the Great Spirit, God, made the world, He gave the Indians one way to worship Him and He gave the Whitemen another way, because we are different people and our lives are different.

The Indian should keep to his way and the Whiteman to his, and we should all work with one another for God and not against one another. The Indian does not try to tell you how you should worship God. We like to see you worship Him in your own way, because we know you understand that way. He gave you houses to live in, good things to eat and fast things to travel in.

He gave the Indian the tepees to live in and the buffalo to feed on. But you White people did not like the land that your God gave you, and you came over here to take the Indians' land. If you did that, how do we know, if we should accept your God, that He won't take everything from us, too, when we die and go to your hunting grounds?

Teach all of the little ones in Your way. Make peace on all the world. We thank You for the sun and the good summer weather again; and we hope they will bring good crops of grass for the animals and things to eat for all peoples. Through what prophets we know not, but the evidence is beyond challenge that the Redman, before the Whiteman came, had achieved a knowledge of the Creator of the universe and was worshipping Him in a religion of spirituality, kindness, and truth. He is eternal, invisible, omniscient, omnipotent, unportrayable.

In and through Him all beings live and move; to Him all worship and allegiance are due; from Him all good things come. Him we must approach with reverence; His favour may be won by prayer, by sacrifice, and a kindly life; knowledge of Him, by discipline, by fasting, and by lonely vigil; and with that knowledge will come His guidance. He is impersonal; yet at times inspiring or entering personally into animals, birds, clouds, rain, mountains, men or things.

He must, above all, be a good provider for his family, a brave protector, a kind and helpful neighbour, and ever ready to defend his family, his camp, or his Tribe from a foreign foe. Whence it came into this world or whither it goes when it departs, he does not know. But when his time comes to die, he should remember that he is going on to the next world.

What the next life contains for him, he has no means of ascertaining. Nevertheless, he should not approach it with fear and trembling, repenting and weeping over such things as he has left undone, or such things as he should not have done. He should rest assured that he has done his best with the gifts and the limitations that were his, 16 and that his condition there will be governed by his record and his behaviour here. Therefore, let him sing his Death Song, and go out like a hero going home.

He pervades all things at all times. Reverence Him, and respect all worship of Him by others, for none have all the truth, and all who reverently worship have claims on our respect. So also, show respect to such things as are held sacred by others. Lying is at all times shameful, for the Great Spirit is everywhere all the time. To swear falsely in the name of the Great Spirit is a sin worthy of death. For these things are the wisdom of the Ancients and of your fathers in the long ago. Killing a member of one's own Tribe, if deliberate, is a crime worthy of death; if by accident, it can be compensated by adequate damages, according to the judgment of the Council.

Keep your marriage vows, and lead no others into breach of theirs. It is a shame and a sin of all unworthiness in a man to have great possessions, when there be those of his Tribe who are in want. When, by chance of war or of commerce, or the gifts of the Great Spirit that have blessed him with power, he hath more than he hath need of for himself and his family, he should call the people together and give a Potlatch or Feast of Giving, and distribute of his surplus to those that have need, according to their need; especially remembering the widow, the orphan, and the helpless.

Touch not nor taste any food or drink that robs the body of its power or the spirit of its vision. Bathe every morning in cold water, take the Sweat Lodge according to your need, and thus perfect your body; for the body is the sacred temple of the spirit. Rejoice in the fullness of your aliveness. Seek to make your life long and full of service to your people. And prepare a noble Death Song for the day when you are about to cross the Great Divide. Second sight - that is occult vision, or clairvoyance - was widely understood and cultivated by the Indians. All their great leaders were mystics.

Sitting Bull was an outstanding example. He commonly induced the trance and the vision by prayer, lasting and lonely vigil. He realized by observation that alcohol is the great enemy of clairvoyance, and continually preached against it, warning his people that "firewater will rob you of the vision". Yet there are well-attested instances of remarkable prophecies and other mystic practice.

For thereby the body is purged, and your spirit hath mastery over the body. By prayer and fasting and high service, we can so raise the quality of our being that we enter the next life with completeness of vision, hearing the Voices, and with knowledge of the Great Mystery. Having first prepared himself by means of the purifying vapour bath, and cast off, as far as possible, all human or fleshly influences, the young man sought out the noblest height, the most commanding summit in all the surrounding region.

Knowing that God sets no value upon material things, he took with him no offerings or sacrifices, other than symbolic objects, such as paints and tobacco. Wishing to appear before Him in all humility, he wore no clothing save his moccasins and breechclout. At the solemn hour of sunrise or sunset, he took up his position, overlooking the glories of earth, and facing the 'Great Mystery', and there he remained, naked, erect, silent, and motionless, exposed to the elements and forces of His arming, for a night and a day or two days and nights, but rarely longer.

Sometimes he would chant a hymn without words, or offer the ceremonial 'filled pipe'. In this holy trance or ecstasy the Indian mystic found his highest happiness, and the motive power of his existence. Spiritual arrogance was foreign to his nature and teaching. He never claimed that the power of articulate speech was proof of superiority over the dumb creation; on the other hand, it is to him a perilous gift. He believes profoundly in silence - the sign of a perfect equilibrium. Silence is the absolute poise or balance of body, mind, and spirit. The man who preserves his selfhood, ever calm and unshaken by the storms of existence - not a leaf, as it were, astir on the tree; not a ripple upon the surface of shining pool - his, in the mind of the unlettered sage, is the ideal attitude and conduct of life.

The holy silence is His voice! Silence is the cornerstone of character. His daily devotions were more necessary to him than daily food. He wakes at daybreak, puts on his moccasins, and steps down to the water's edge. Here he throws handfuls of clear, cold water into his face, or plunges in bodily. After the bath, he stands erect before the advancing dawn, facing the sun as it dances upon the horizon, and offers his unspoken orison. His mate may precede or follow him in his devotions, but never accompanies him.

Each soul must meet the morning sun, the new sweet earth, and the Great Silence alone! So also their other prophets: "When you arise in the morning, give thanks for the morning light. Give thanks for your life and strength. Give thanks for your food and give thanks for the joy of living. And if perchance you see no reason for giving thanks, rest assured the fault is in yourself. Then, continuing the daily round, Ohiyesa says: "When food is taken, the woman murmurs a 'grace' as she lowers the kettle, an act so softly and unobtrusively performed that one who does not know the custom usually fails to catch the whisper: 'Spirit, partake!

When he becomes an old man, he loves to make a notable effort to prove his gratitude. He cuts off the choicest morsel of the meat and casts it into the fire - the purest and most ethereal element. When ye are assembled in Council, fail not to light in the midst the Fire which is the symbol of the Great Spirit and the sign of His presence. And let each Councillor smoke, passing the Pipe in a circle like that of the Sun from east southward to the west. At the opening of Council, let the Chief arise, light the pipe, and pray: "Wakan Tanka Wakan na kay chin, Chandee eeya paya wo.

Grant that fear may never enter into my heart to be the guide of my feet. I that sing am he. During the prayer those assembled stand in a great circle about the fire, with faces and hands raised to heaven. As the final words are sung, hands and heads are bowed to the symbolic fire, and the Chief announces: "With this our council is ended. Mighty one Above us in blue, silent sky! The burial ceremonies, the respect for the departed and the belief in a future life are set forth in the practice of many tribes.

Catlin, speaking of the Mandans, says: "Whenever a person dies in the Mandan Village, the customary honour and condolence are paid to his remains, and the body is dressed in its best attire, painted, oiled, and supplied with bow and quiver, shield, pipe and tobacco, knife, flint and steel, and food enough to last him a few days on the journey which he is to perform. A fresh buffalo's skin, just taken from the animal's back, is wrapped around the body, and tightly bound and wound with thongs of rawhide from head to foot.

Then other robes are soaked in water, till they are quite soft and elastic, which are also bandaged round the body in the same manner, and tied fast with thongs, which are wound with great care and exactness, so as to exclude the action of the air from all parts of the body.

Hewett, are strangely indifferent to the body after death. They consider it a mere husk, an empty case, to be disposed of with view only to the comfort of the survivors.

The soul that emerged will go on to the next life, and construct for itself a new and better body. Every Indian in the old days had a Death Song prepared for the time when he knew he was rating the end. One Indian Chief confided to me that his Death Song was the same as that of the thirty-seven Sioux patriots who were executed at Mankato, Minnesota, in for seeking to drive the invaders from their country:.

I care not where my body lies, My soul goes marching on. When Nanni Chaddi and his four Apache warriors, after four days of starvation, thirst and agony, decided to face and fight rather than surrender to the White regiment that had them cornered in a cave, they sang to God:. For ourselves we grieve not, But for those who are left behind. Let not fear enter into our hearts. We are going out to die. Then, armed only with arrows and lances, they dashed into the fire of a hundred rifles, and were shot to rags.

Some years ago the Canadian Government made a ruling that no settler who wished to live on a small island would be allowed a homestead claim. The reason given was that no man who wished to live alone can, in the last analysis, be a good citizen. A good citizen needs near neighbours for himself, for his work, and for his family. Sociability as a fundamental of human nature is fully recognized in all Indian Tribes - even the nomads - and is the inevitable solution of many of the troubles that are harassing the White race in America. The Indian was a socialist in the best and literal meaning of the word.

The White farmer or hunter might live in a lonely cabin on his farm or on his hunting quest; but the Indian was always found living in a village with his people, either a movable village as among the nomadic Tribes of the Buffalo Plains, or in a farming village as among the Pueblos, or the Mandans, or the Tribes of the upper Missouri. The Redman's social system was very nearly the same as that instituted by Moses. Catlin remarks the identity of their laws with those of the Israelites, and instances their marriage customs, treatment of sick, burial of dead, mourning, ablutions.

The highest development of the Indian culture was seen in Central and South America, about the time of the Spanish discovery. According to Professor G. Murdoch 37 , the Inca social system of Peru was communistic, or, as he styles it, strictly one of "State Socialism". Under this system, the weak, the sick and the aged were adequately cared for.

It achieved an equilibrium of production and consumption, not through the free interchange of goods, but through State-supervised, periodic distributions of the surplus production. Avarice, the root of all evil, was impossible, partly because they had no money; also because there was a strongly established public sentiment against any one man having vast possessions.

When the fortunes of war or of commerce resulted in one man accumulating a great number of horses, blankets or other property, it was the custom for him to give a feast or potlatch, and distribute his surplus among those who had little or none. Trade was carried on through a system of barter, by sticks or counters. On the Plains, the smallest unit was an arrow, worth ten cents; the next unit was a beaver skin, worth one dollar; the next a buffalo robe, worth five dollars.

Sometimes a horse came next with a value of two robes. These varied in different regions. On the Atlantic Coast, wampum or shell money was used. Although concrete articles were mentioned in these values, they were not necessarily produced, but were merely the names of such values. Usually the barter was completed at once, so there was no hoarding of the sticks or counters used.

No man owns land. A man owns only so much land as he tills, or occupies with his house or his field. When he ceases to occupy or till that land, it goes back to the Tribe, to be allotted to another member. No man owns the wood of the forest, or the water of the rivers, or the soil of the earth. He did not make them, they are the harvest of the land that belongs to the whole people; and only so much of them is his as he can gather with his own hands and use in his own home.

The wild plants are under the same law, but a man may claim certain forage crops, such as wild rice, by establishing his owner mark around a reasonable area before it is ripe to cut. Nevertheless, the High Council shall be judge as to the reasonableness of his claim. If any man shall gather a pile of firewood or buffalo chips or other fuel, or substance, such as clay or stone or poles or willows, and leave on it the mark of his ownership, that mark shall protect it from all who would take it till that season is over. After that, it becomes again tribal property.

No man owns game or wild animals, for these are the produce of the land that belongs to the nation - only so much of them is his as he can effectively and lawfully possess with his own hands. In some cases he may hold the sole right to capture eagles within a limited area. He picked no more berries than he needed to stay the cravings of his hunger, and scrupulously avoided injuring trees and bushes which bore anything edible. He killed no more game than he needed for himself and his camp, and ate every part of what he did kill. When he built a file, he used only the fuel that was necessary, and before quitting the spot extinguished the flame with care.

The Tribe alone controls all tribal interests. The Tribe may give to one family the exclusive right to hunt or gather wood or forage or wild rice or fruit in one tract or range, but the family cannot sell this right, nor can they hire others to hunt or gather for them, lest the hunting be destroyed by overdrain. If one finds game on the range, and have it in his power, only so much may be killed as he needs and can use.

He may not kill for the evil pleasure of killing and wasting. He should leave at least a pair to stock again the pond.


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Leave also the dams and the houses, so that the beaver may recover and again restock the range. If one find deer in a deer-yard when the snow is deep, he shall kill only so many as he and his people nigh at hand can use. It is a dishonourable thing to kill so much game that it goes to waste. The punishment of those who so behave is that some day they shall suffer starvation. It is lawful to fire the prairie in fall, or in spring when the grass is dry; for thereby little damage is done, and the grass comes many days sooner and is much better in the springtime afterward.

But it is at no time lawful to set the forest afire, for that is a great and lasting calamity to all who dwell therein, whether men or game, and it never recovers itself of the damage. All men are free and equal, and have a right to the pursuit of happiness in their own way - so only they do not encroach on the same right of others.

Every man must treat with respect all such things as are sacred to other people, whether he comprehends them or not. Every man and woman who is in sickness or adversity, or helpless old age, has a right to the protection and support of the Tribe - because in the days of their strength they also contributed to the common weal. Every man and woman is expected to marry on coming of age. Celibacy is almost a disgrace, implying in some sort a failure. Marriages are arranged for all, and must not be within one's own clan. There was but little ceremony at the wedding.

The man who desired a certain woman and had secured evidence of her approval sent to the girl's parents a present, proportional to his means. This was not truly wife purchase; it was rather considered compensation for loss of her services. Marriage was, among the Indians, strictly a civil contract, dissoluble at any time by mutual consent and usually for one of three causes - infelicity, infidelity, or infertility.

Divorce was allowed on the same basis as in the Mosaic code: if the man prove a failure as a husband, if the pair are not blessed with children, or serious discord develops, they can quickly have their union dissolved, each being free and expected to marry again. Marital infidelity was rare, because the remedy for discord was so easily within reach. Every child is entitled to a home, food, upbringing, and an education - and if so be he has no near kin, then he is a proper and honourable charge on the Tribe. There was no such thing as an illegitimate child - that is, a child without social standing or legal rights because its parents were unmarried.

All were legitimate, and when an unmarried woman had a baby, there never was lack of a kind person ready to offer the little one a home and an adoptive father. The tender regard of the Indian parent for the children is well known. More than one of their prophets have said: "If your child be wayward, unruly, rebellious, or insolent, do not beat him. Only a brute and a coward would beat a helpless child. Rather discipline him by exclusion from the games with his fellows, and even to fasting till he is brought to see his error.

They instruct them carefully in their own principles, and train them up with attention in the maxims and habits of their nation. Their system consists chiefly in the influence of example, and impressing upon them the traditional histories of their ancestors. Love of their children is a dominant characteristic of the Red race. I never saw an Indian child spanked; I never saw an Indian child spoiled. Women had votes among the Indians ages before they were accorded the privilege in Europe.

They had a voice in all national affairs and could rise to the chieftainship. In many Tribes, the High Chief was a woman. In most Tribes, the woman is the owner of the home and of the children, and of whatever is in the home. The man owns the horses, cattle, and crops, and whatever he produces or secures with his own hands. But when game is killed, or crops harvested and brought into the house, they become the property of the wife.

The rule was respected by the man, and he killed his wife if she broke it; and public sentiment approved his act. Unfaithfulness was an unpardonable sin. Dodge, an Indian fighter, says: "The Cheyenne women are retiring and modest, and for chastity will compare favourably with women of any other nation or people.

These high standards were held among all the great tribes such as the Sioux, the Cheyennes and those who shared their culture. Among these, it was customary to have a Maiden Dance at special times. Only virgins might take part, and anyone was at liberty to challenge the right of such a one to dance - but he must be prepared with absolute proof or his punishment for false charges might be frightful, even death.

In other Tribes, more lenient views prevailed. Yet, among these, all valued the virginity of a woman; and a woman who transgressed was less highly esteemed because she was less likely to be true to the man she married. But there was no public scorn. Unchaste women were not treated as criminals; any more than a Whiteman is made outcast for taking a little too much to drink.

The Rev. Van Dusen, missionary to the Ojibway Indians, writes: "The Indian character, in its unadulterated grandeur, is most admirable and attractive. Before it is polluted by the pernicious example of others - the demoralizing and debasing influence of wicked Whitemen - the genuine North American pagan presents to the world the most noble specimen of the natural man that can be found on the face of the earth. Bishop Henry Benjamin Whipple, of Minnesota, thus sums up the wild Indian, after intimate knowledge, during a lifetime of association: "The North American Indian is the noblest type of a heathen man on the earth.

A WAY OF LIFE

He recognizes a Great Spirit; he believes in immortality; he has a quick intellect; he is a clear thinker; he is brave and fearless, and, until betrayed, he is true to his plighted faith; he has a passionate love for his children, and counts it a joy to die for his people. Our most terrible wars have been with the noblest types of the Indians and with men who had been the Whiteman's friends. Nicolet said the Sioux were the finest type of wild men he had ever seen. The whole village must be in distress before any individual is left in necessity.

Even stronger is the summary of the Jesuit father, J. Lafitau: "They are high-minded and proud; possess a courage equal to every trial; an intrepid valour; the most heroic constancy under torments, and an equanimity which neither misfortunes nor reverses can shake. Toward each other, they behave with a natural politeness and attention, entertaining a high respect for the aged, and a consideration for their equals which appears scarcely reconcilable with that freedom and independence of which they are so jealous.

In the summer of , I met Father A. He had gone there twenty-five years before, an enthusiastic young religionist, convinced that the highest calling on earth was that of missionary - his noblest triumph would be the conversion of these Indians to his particular form of Christianity.

He began, as all sincere and devoted missionaries do, by learning the language and also studying the philosophy of the people he hoped to influence. When I first saw him he had ceased to call them "benighted heathens" and was already admitting that they were a noble race with high standards of religion and ethics.

Not long afterwards he admitted to me that the Medicine Lodge of the Sioux Nation was "a true Church of God, and we have no right to stamp it out. Instead I found him as "Lawyer Beede" and heard the story of a noble and sincere messenger. They do not need a missionary, but they do need a lawyer to defend them in the Courts. After some years I was admitted to the bar of North Dakota, and now I am their permanent official advocate in all cases involving Indians that come into Court. The Indians can pay me little or nothing for my services. I live in a little cabin built by myself and cook my own meals.

Long after Lafitau, the judicial Morgan, in his League of the Iroquois, says: "In legislation, in eloquence, in fortitude, and in military sagacity, they [the Iroquois] had no equals. In their religious and war ceremonies, at their feasts, festivals, and funerals, the widows and orphans, the poor and needy are always thought of; not only thought of.

A portion of the hard bread was hidden away, and the smokes were taken in secret. An Indian, undemoralized by contact with the Whites, under similar circumstances, would divide down to the last morsel. Captain John G. Bourke, who spent most of his active life as an Indian fighter, and who, by training, was an Indian hater, was at last, even in the horror of an Indian-crushing campaign, compelled to admit: "The American Indian, born free as the eagle, would not tolerate restraint, would not brook injustice; therefore, the restraint imposed must be manifestly for his benefit, and the government to which he was subjected must be eminently one of kindness, mercy and absolute justice, without necessarily degenerating into weakness.

The American Indian despises a liar. The American Indian is the most generous of mortals; at all his dances and feasts, the widow and the orphan are the first to be remembered. It happened to be our last meeting, and his last words deeply impressed me. We were talking of the Indians, and Bill said, "I never led an expedition against the Indians but I was ashamed of myself, ashamed of my government, and ashamed of my flag; for they were always in the right and we were always in the wrong.

They never broke a treaty, and we never kept one. After reviving the ancient memories, he said and dictated for print: "If I had known then what I know now about Indian character, I would have deserted from the American army and joined up with the Apaches. Miles himself described the Indians as "the most heroic face the world has ever seen.

Edgar L. Hewett has publicly stated many times: "There can be no question that the Redman had evolved a better civilization than our own. Its one weakness was in the fact that it did not carry the mastery of metals. The welfare of the people was the supreme end of government. Professor C. Nichols, of the Southwestern University, Georgetown, Texas, a profound student of Indian life, said to me sadly, in reference to the destruction of the primitive Indian: "I am afraid we have stamped out a system that was producing men who, taken all round, were better than ourselves.

Thus these soldiers and travellers, with scarcely a dissentient voice, proclaimed that the Redman, in the free enjoyment of his life and religion, was brave, clean, kind, religious, and reverent; temperate and unsordid, untainted by avarice, dignified, courteous, truthful, and honest; the soul of honour, and gifted with a physique that represents the highest bodily development of which the world has record. The belief in witchcraft was widely spread among the Indians.

Their ideas and attitude toward it were much like those announced by Moses. The subject is obscure and perplexing. There are not lacking those who believe in witchcraft as the hypnotic power of a strong will over a weaker. Decrepit old women are the unlikeliest persons in the world to have such power.

The subject is not exhausted nor is the idea exploded. The valid legal plea of "undue influence" comes properly under this head. The Medicine Men or Shamans were healers, as well as wise men. While these were supposed to know surgery as well as medicine, their knowledge was very superficial and quite empirical.

Their practice was largely with a spiritual approach, as indeed were most Indian ways of life. They had no knowledge of our modern science of biochemistry, but they understood and worked largely with massage, sweat baths, mud baths, mineral springs, decoctions of barks, sun rays, pinewood air and smoke, and faith cure.

They had, moreover, much knowledge of the occult properties of plants, a knowledge which, alas, is being allowed to die out. In treatment of snakebite, for instance, some had and still have a sovereign remedy. We owe to the ancient Peruvians our knowledge and use of such drugs as cocaine, quinine, cascara, ipecac, tolu, cola, and the like. The Indians had no written speech and no codification of their laws. The laws were purely traditional, and the punishment for breach of the same was meted out by the Chief and the High Council, or sometimes the Chief alone. In some cases, the aggrieved party was encouraged to take the law into his own hands.

In all cases, public opinion was the most important influence in appraising a crime. In some cases, compensatory damages were imposed on the delinquent; in rare cases, physical punishment; in extreme cases, death or ostracism. Each of the great Plains tribes had a Lodge of Dog Soldiers, who were the police.

They took orders from the Chief, and were sworn to "walk straight", that is, obey him, without regard for any personal consequences. The cruelest folk recorded in history were the Christians of the Middle Ages. One notorious preacher and leader of a Christian Church decoyed his rival preacher into a trap, and not only condemned him to be burned alive, but deliberately selected green wood that the agony might thereby be prolonged.

The diabolical ingenuity of the European torturer was not satisfied by the fiery death, preceded by long slow mutilation; but mental agonies were invented as well, that could and did prolong the horror for week and months. The official records of the Holy Inquisition announce proudly that they burned alive , human beings because they differed from them in religious belief. All historic evidence of value makes it clear that in general the Indians were originally the kindest of people, and torture of prisoners was practically unknown until introduced and made general by the White invaders.

Nevertheless there can be no doubt that in primitive days, the Iroquois, the Hurons, the Abnaki and some other Tribes did occasionally torture a prisoner taken in war - either because he was a notorious enemy who had caused them great and terrible losses, or because he directly challenged them to do so - that he might demonstrate his fortitude and defiance to the last.

Among the Christian nations of Europe it was the usual thing to torture all prisoners. During the War of , both the English under General Proctor and the Americans under General Wayne were following their custom of torturing their prisoners. But in the English army it was stopped by the great Indian Tecumseh, who denounced as cowards any who would torture a helpless captive.

When Proctor objected that it was customary, and the men must be amused, Tecumseh challenged Proctor to mortal combat, man to man, whereupon Proctor backed down like the poltroon he was. Scalping a warrior killed in battle was an established custom in many Tribes; but how much cleaner and better than the Whiteman's custom of putting the dead man's head on a pole, that its agonized expression might long be enjoyed by the victor. It was from the Puritan Pilgrim Fathers that the Massachusetts Indians learned to scalp their enemies.

All historians, hostile or friendly, admit the Indian to have been the finest type of physical manhood the world has ever known. None but the best, the picked, chosen and trained of the Whites, had any chance with him. The Redman's approach to all life and thought was spiritual. The interdependence of body and soul is thus summed up by Ohiyesa in his inspiring account of the religion of his people, the Dakotas: "The moment that man conceived of a perfect body, supple, symmetrical, graceful, and enduring - in that moment he had laid the foundation of a moral life.

No man can hope to maintain such a temple of the spirit beyond the period of adolescence unless he is able to curb his indulgence in the pleasures of the senses. Upon this truth, the Indian built a rigid system of physical training, a social and moral code that was the law of his life. He desired to be a worthy link in the generations, and that he might not destroy by his weakness that vigour and purity of blood which had been achieved at the cost of so much self-denial by a long line of ancestors.

The bodily fatigue thus induced, especially when coupled with a reduced diet, is a reliable cure for undue sexual desires. Speaking of the Iroquois in primitive condition, Brinton says that physically "they were unsurpassed by any on the continent, and I may even say by any other people in the world. The most famous runner of ancient Greece was Pheidippides, whose record run from Athens to Sparta was miles in 36 hours. Among our Indians, such a feat would have been considered very second-rate.

In , at Fort Ellice, I saw a young Cree who, on foot, had just brought in despatches from Fort Qu'Appelle miles away in 25 hours. It created almost no comment. The latter occupied a small log house near the site of the present residence of Mrs. Harriet Tannery until when he built what now constitutes the rear part of J. Dubois' house, opposite C. Merriam's residence, and moved into it. Owen Spalding occupied a plank house on the present site of Dr. Snook's residence.

This was probably the house built by Deacon Strong. In Mr. Spalding built a house on the site now occupied by R. Elmer's fine residence. This house was afterward removed to the southwest corner of Chemung street and Pennsylvania avenue, where it now stands and where Mr. Spalding died about three years ago, after a long and useful life. In March Joseph Hallet Sr. Hallet and W. He was accompanied by his sons Gilbert H. The latter settled upon the above mentioned farm, his house standing on what is now Fulton street, between the present residences of Mrs.

Fritcher and E. At that time says Mr. Hallet, there were but fifteen buildings in the place, namely: one hotel, one distillery, one blacksmith shop, one log dwelling, one plank dwelling, six small frame dwellings and four barns. Shepard's present residence; the dwelling of Elder Jackson, a Baptist minister whose house stood just west of the present residence of W. Inman, and the Elder's blacksmith shop, which stood where now stands S. Slaughter's elegant residence Chemung st. Spalding's, Jackson's Newkirk's and Shepard's barns, the latter the large red barn now standing on Pine street the only remaining land-mark of those early days.

Gilbert Hallet moved into the log house vacated by Amos Spalding, and the following year built and removed into a house that stood where now stands H. Stowell's brick house. This place and the acres bought by Joseph Hallet were purchased by Jackson and Hill respectively of Isaac Shepard.

The former are the 45 acres referred to in Mr. The land lay south of Chemung street, the east line passing near E. Tracy's drugstores to the 60th mile stone, thence west. Along the state line to the center of Dry Brook, thence north following the center of Dry Brook to Chemung street, and west along Chemung street to the place of beginning, comprising what is now the business portion of the village.

Our property was included in this. At this time Harris Murray, father of John H. Murray of this place, lived in a small wooden house where "Murray's stone house" now stands, in South Waverly, and Mr. Murray offerred to sell to Mr. These sales illustrate how lightly the land in this valley was valued fifty years ago. While these settlements were being made along the Chemung road, other pioneers were pushing on beyond and locating on the hill northwest of the village, now called "West Hill.

This portion of the Susquehanna valley had been the scene of many forest fires, lighted either intentionally or carelessly by the hunters, and had been so frequently burned over that but little save second growth pines remained, and this is said to have been the reason why many of the early pioneers refused to locate here, they thinking that land that would produce naught but "scrub pines" was of little value, and accordingly pushed on to the highlands beyond believing that the heavy growth of timber there indicated a fertile and productive soil.

VanDerlip, W. Lane, Jesse Kirk and others. Of these we believe none are now living and but few of their descendants remain on the old homesteads. Between the years and the number of settlers in the village increased rapidly among the new comers being Captain Benj. Davis, F. Baldwin, H. Moore, Richard A. Elmer Sr. Brooks, J. Corwin, Sylvester Gibbons, R. Crandall, the first physician, Peter Wentz, the first justice, George Beebe, the first lawyer and many others.

The street running from Charles Sawyer's residence on Chemung street to Barnes' Hotel, East Waverly, was laid out in , and in Pennsylvania avenue was laid out south as far as the present residence of Levi Curtis, and in the same year Waverly street was opened down as far as the present residence of Mrs. Joseph Aplin. Buck in now resides, Milo Hulet built one where H. Butts' residence now stands and Frank Sutton one on the corner of Pennsylvania avenue and Park Place. The latter was torn down by Mr. Elmer, a year or two ago. In G. Hallet and Andrew Price built a foundry on the northwest corner of Chemung and Waverly streets, where A.

Decker's residence now stands. A short time afterwards Daniel Moore opened a cabinet shop in the second floor of this building. Later the foundry was changed into a hotel and bore the name of the Clarmont house. It was a previous building on that lot that was destroyed by fire in The hotel was where the election took place in to incorporate Waverly. The hotel at that time was run by James Whitaker. The hotel here was also known as Brigham's. In J. Hallet built a house on Waverly street, for one of the employees of the foundry. This was the first house on the street, and was situated on the site of Duncan McDonald's residence.

The houses now owned by H. Hayes and Mrs. Smith respectively were also built in that year. The first store was kept by Alva Jarvis, or "Squire Jarvis" as he was called, in the spring of , in a wooden building between the sites of the present residences of Mrs. Fritcher and A. In the following fall G. Hallet opened a store just west of H. Stowell's present residence. To be continued. Sawyer President. March 12, The Waverly Advocate: Historical.

The necessarily hurried manner in which these articles are prepared and written - the compositors frequently taking the copy as fast as written, and sometimes waiting for it - has resulted in our passing over some interesting events without mention. Hasty proof reading and correcting also, has led to two or three blunders, which perhaps it were better to correct here than later: In the initial number the phrase connecting link between the Erie canal and Cayuga Lake, should have read with the Erie canal via Cayuga Lake.

In the second number, in speaking of the first settlers on Elliscreek, the name Ebenezer Ellis, by some unaccountable means got changed to Ebenezer Miller, in another number the name, Mrs. James Aplin, was made to read Mrs. Joseph Aplin, and the date of Mr. Hallet's settlement here the types made read In the article on the fire department last week the reference to Merriam Bros. Jenning's store the mistake being inadvertently made in copying from the files.

The location was right, however, the name only, being wrong. These mistakes, if annoying to our readers, are doubly so to us, but in view of the difficulties attending such an enterprise we are satisfied that they are not greater. In future numbers, however, we shall make still greater endeavor to avoid even trifling errors.

Among the few interesting points omitted are the following: the first barn built in the town of Barton, in as before stated, is still standing and forms a part of the barn now in use by Sela Ellis. The first brick house in the village was erected in by Dr. Clute; it stands on the corner of Chemung and Lincoln streets and is a good building now.

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Isaac Shepard's store - the small white building near W. Shepard's farm house at the narrows, - after the building of the Erie railroad, was called Loder Summit and Station, and this name may still be seen in large letters, on the side of the building. The American house was built in about , for a grist mill but soon was changed into a furniture factory; in Frank Sutton converted the building into a hotel. A bird's - eye view of Broad st as it looked in just as Waverly's first great fire was breaking out, the lurid flames leaping from the windows of the Spalding block, is now in the possession of Maurice Bennet; it is an oil painting and belongs to the fire department.

Another interesting fact that we have learned since the publication of the earlier numbers, and that appears to have been forgotten by all, save one or two of the older residents, is that until about , 45, the little settlement on Chemung street was called "Villemont," a name given it by Isaac Shepard. This name preceded that of Waverly, and was used to designate the settlement from Factoryville and was the first name given to the village.

After this the place was called Villemont, Waverly, Loder, etc. The name was then, and for several years afterwards, spelled, Waverley. The following article on Waverly and its location, we take from the initial number of the first paper ever published in the village, the Waverley Luminary, published by Thomas Messenger. The spirit of prophecy was evidently upon its editor, to a limited extent, at least, and the place seems to be realizing its destiny in becoming quite a large village, although Factoryville is not yet incorporated as a part and parcel of it.

Messenger's appreciation of his town and the hopeful and enthusiastic manner in which he speaks of it commands our admiration. Our Location. Waverley is situated in the southwest corner of Tioga county, N. It is located midway between the thriving Villages of Owego and Elmira, on a beautiful elevated plain, about four miles form the village of Athens, where the North Branch and Chemung rivers unite and form the Susquehanna.

There is no place along the line of the Railroad whose growth has been so rapid as Waverley. One year since, and it was simply a station; now it is a neat village, containing over 1, inhabitants, with hotels, well-stocked Stores, Churches, and last, but not least, its Newspaper, - and is destined from its location, to become quite a large Village, if not a City.

It is now pretty generally understood that the Williamsport Railroad will terminate at this place; which, when finished will have the effect of doubling our present population in a few months. A glance at our Business Cards and advertising columns will show the amount of business in the Village, better than we can do it, in an article like this, although not one-half our business men have as yet got their names in the paper, but they will probably do so in a few weeks.

Six miles East of us and in the same town, is the enterprising little Village of Barton, and four miles west is the village of Chemung - both of which have their Hotels, Stores, etc. The ancient Village of Factoryville, is right by our side - in fact, a part and parcel of this village will undoubtedly be incorporated as such, ere long. It also has a lot of splendid Stores, Shops, Mills, Factories, etc. A view from the top of the far-famed Spanish Hill, a few rods in front of the Village, would amply repay a person for a trip from New York City.

As a desirable place of residence it is not surpassed by any other; for the Doctor's can scarcely exist here it is so miserably healthy, and they are thinking of turning their attention to the raising of grain - as they have no patients to raise. A few months after the publication of the Luminary began M. Pomeroy became an employee of the office and soon began to develop those traits that have since brought him a great deal of notoriety. It was one of his early efforts in wild-oat sowing, that gave to him the sobriquet "Brick", a name by which he is known the world over, and one that has always seemed peculiarly adapted to him.

Since we first started the Luminary, some six months since, the population and building in this Village have increased nearly one-fourth, and ere long it will be one of the largest as well as one of the most beautiful Villages on the line of the Erie Railroad. Moore, Esq. Bristol, which is located on a rise of ground overlooking the country for miles around. But still the work of improvement is going on, and new buildings are being put up in every part of our Village, and stranger are daily enquiring for stores and dwellings.

To give our readers at a distance, and idea of rapidity with which we are moving along we will give a list of the buildings now under contract, and to be erected as fast as they can be put up, viz: On Broad Street. Davis, three brick stores, three stories high. Snyder, brick hotel, four stories high. Myers, machine shop and dwelling house. Manners, store and bakery. Johnson, Carriage shop. LaFayette Perkins, dwelling house. Elmer, marble shop. Rood, dwelling house. Hay, store. Fulton Street. Jarvis, dwelling house. Barto, dwelling house.

Simonson, two dwelling houses. Millspaugh, dwelling house. Peter Velie, dwelling house. Waverley Street. Hallett, two dwelling houses. Swain dwelling house. Tioga Street. Hallett, dwelling house. Larnard, dwelling house. Pennsylvania Avenue. Browning, dwelling house. Mills, dwelling house. Howard Street. Loder Street. Providence Street. Newell, academical building, 42 x88 feet, and four stories high, to be built of brick. The above list of buildings, will be up and finished in a short time.

Spalding block. Lewis, cooper, - St. Lain, Cooper, Chemung st. Reel, Waverley hotel, cor. Chemung and Waverley sts. The following article relative to the Robert Packer Hospital soon to be opened at Sayre, is worthy of careful perusal by all our readers, and we trust that our citizens will realize the benefit to be derived from such an institution and thaty they will assist generously in its support.

Editor: Doubtless many readers of the Advocate are already aware of the munificent gift about to be bestowed upon this community by Miss Mary H. Packer, of Mauch Chunk. The Packer mansion of Sayre, with its extensive grounds and gardens, after being put in readiness for the work, is to be conveyed to the trustees of a corporation to be called the Robert Packer Hospital, and will be devoted henceforth to the shelter and care of the sick and suffering.

Robert Packer, whose heart was full of sympathy for the distressed and whose hand was ever ready to relieve the needy, would have been made happy by the knowledge that his costly residence would in time be appropriated to such a noble purpose by his sister. Estes of St. Luke's Hospital, of South Bethlehem, says of the house, "If it had been originally designed for a hospital its arrangements could hardly have been more complete. The palatial dining-room forty feet long, is to be taken for the men's ward. Its elaborate mahogany wainscoting, and the splendid wall decoration will be removed for sanitary reasons, but the expensive inlaid floor and beautiful stained glass windows are to be retained, and will no doubt beguile many weary hours for the suffering inmates.

Leading out of this room is a large conservatory, which is to be fitted up as a lounging room for the male convalescents. The elegant apartments over ther great dining- room, are to be used for the women's ward, while some of the airy bed-chambers on the second and third floors will be occupied when required by private patients who can afford to pay for care and sumptuous surroundings. The drawing-room with its beautifully frescoed ceiling is to be converted into a chapel, the parlor back ot it into an operating room, and the exquisite library into a dispensary.

The breakfast-room alone, is to be reserved for the use at first intended. It is impossible in a limited article to give a full description of the luxurious appointments of this establishment - its extensive heating arrangements, its various bath-rooms, electric bells, speaking tubes etc. It is of course expected, after the plan is carried out in all its details, the public wil sufficiently appreciated this gift of Miss Packer, to gladly contribute to its maintenance. Large sums will not be asked, but every adult in this village ought to be willings to make a small yearly offering to this institution, which includes in itself so many benevolences - giving shelter, food, nursing and medical attendance, and at the same time teaching grand lessons of practical christianity.

It is understood the ladies of each of the surrounding towns, are to assume the furnishing of some one of these, and it is believed the women of Waverly will not be backward in the work. If any of the readers of the Advocate have visited the children' wards of St. Luke's, the Presbyterian, or other Hospitals of New York city, their hearts must have been touched by the sight of the pale but happy little invalids clinging with waxen fingers to their treasured toys, and many of them no doubt learning for the first time the meaning of the word "home.

These think the nurses are all "Fairey Gamps" and the physicians heartless experimenters. If they would take the trouble to visit, for instance, the one at Rochester, where it is the favorite object of benevolence, they would soon have theses ideas dissapated. A lady of wealth and culture of that city said to the writer, "Oh, the comfort of the hospital! There one can have perfect quiet, and too, the soothing assurance that the best that training and science can give, is at one's command. It is in such institutions as these, the wealthy of our day so often use their accumulations, for the public good, and rear structures upon foundations no financial earthquaker can overthrow, and by the Robert Packer Hospital at Sayre, the Chapel at South Bethlehem, and the Orphanage at Mauch Chunk Mary Packer will enscribe her own name not far below that of her benificent father.

April 2, Waverly Advocate On motion the Clerk was directed to publish in connection with the proceedings of the Board, a list, so far as ascertained, of those who subcribed to the Town Clock Fund. No other business being presented on motion the Board adjourned. Shoemaker, Clerk. Andre old bell. Sawyer, Moses Lyman, S. Slaughter , Wm. Plm, Murray Fairchild, Wm. Manners, H. Thomas, S. Bowen, W. Sweet, W. Thacher, A. Decker, A. Ward, D. McDonald, A. Smitt, John S.

Carroll, R. Manners, E. Green, Sol. Unger, Geo. Fish, C. Spencer, John C. Shear, J. Jones, W. Warner, G. Moffit, Frank J. Campbell, L. Powell, B. Gerould, D.


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Atwater, J. Shackelton, C. VanNostran, D. Cain, A. Hildebrand, J. Murdock, Dr. Rezeau, R. Haronden, J. Floyd, Squire Whitaker, M. Sawyer, G. Cuyler, Durfey, H. Clapp, Bert Hayden, G. Spaulding C. Johnson, C. Waford, S. Genung, C. Goff, Hiram Sherry, S. Shoemaker, J. Buck, W. Turney, A. Unger, J.

Shoemaker, William Miller, Dr. Slawson, G. Wilkenson, J. Kaulback, Charles Turney, L. Hallet, H.

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Hayes, James Lemon, S. Lemon, M. McGuffee, E. Corby, John Mahoney, Mrs. John R. Murray, Prof. Hutton, C. Harsh, H. Terry, M. Holloway, James Isley, A. Thompson, P. West, C. Myers, Thatleus Sager, F. Munn, Geo. Blizard, B. McArdle, Jas. McArdle, W. Simpson, M. Mead, Geo. Hotalen, L. Moore, R. Falsom, Wm. Received of E. Also a large line of room mouldings, etc. Ladies interested in beautiful Lace Curtains, should see those now being offered by Watrous Bros.

Howard Buck, son of the late J. Buck went to Salamanca last week, where he has a fine position in a leading store, kept by an old friend of his father. He is a bright boy and will make his mark. Charles H. Cummings, of New York, a well-known official of the Pa. The perseverance of the engine is only equaled by the excellence of the "Lehigh Valley cigar," with numerous boxes of which the track is ballasted.

Try them. It is expected that work will be commenced at the toy factory in about ten days. Crandall is here and will be joined by his son to-morrow and both will give their personal attention to the work. The line shafting is up and the machinery is rapidly being put in position and in a few days it will be ready for business. April 30, Waverly Advocate: C. Brooks and J. West are each erecting fine residences on Orange street. House has twelve rooms. A very desirable property. Apply to H. The forman has sent to Philadelphia, by Mr. Slaughter , for badges for the boys and they expect to turn out about forty strong.

We shall be glad to see the old veterans on the street again as they used to appear thirty years ago when they were the sole proprietors of our dwellings and property, and see them get up their old rolicking swing as of yore. Their ages range from fifty to seventy-five years and they are the boys who had the run to Athens when the Athenians called for help. The foreman has bid the commissary not to let the boys have over four drinks apiece and the president, Dr.

Johnson, will see that they do not get more than one straight flush on. Eastabrooks, of Towanda, is visiting her niece, Mrs. Terms made known on day of sale. With a spanking breeze from the northwest, and a strong flood tide seventeen yachts started in the fifteenth annual regatta of the Williamsburg Yacht Club yesterday. The fleet was divided into classes, A, B, C and D. The Manioch caf crossed the line first, at She was followed by the others in quick succession. With a fair tide and the wind abeam most of the way, the yachts made excellent time. The E. Preston turned the Lighthouse first at The run home was and exciting and close contest for all.

Preston and Amelia J. Their actual time was ; ;, and Amelia J. Foster and Henry Foster owned the octagon house at one time. August 20, Waverly Advocate: The elegant residence of Mr. Moore on Park Avenue was the scene of a large and brilliant assemblage last evening the occasion being the marriage of their only daughter, Miss Mame S.

Moore to Mr. Fred A. Sawyer, the well known teller of the Citizens Bank. Special care and taste had been exercised in adorning the spacious parlors, the products of green houses and gardens, artistically arranged with forest flowers and ferns, displaying every shade and tint in perfect harmony, combined to produce most charming effects. At Rev.

Taylor performed the brief but impressive marriage ceremony, the bride and groom standing beneath a large evergreen arch from the center of which were suspended a large floral horseshoe and the significant cornucopia. Stone, of Oswego, F. Hotchkiss, of Williamsport, L. Manning and P. Lang, of Waverly, did the honors as ushers; there were no bridesmaids. The bridal costume was of elegant white satin en train, garniture of duchess lace; the front was a rise of white brocaded satin and satin plush with natural flowers.

It would be impossible to enumerate the many rare and beautiful presents, but it was undoubtedly the richest and rarest collection ever before received on a similar occasion in this village and spoke more eloquently than words of the high esteem in which the young people are held, and for this they will be valued more highly than for their intrinsic value. The nuptial feast did honor to the occasion and was enjoyed by all. After receiving the congratulations of the guests Mr. Sawyer left for New York and the sea shore.

Sawyer is one of our most promising and popular young business men and his bride is one of Waverley's fairest and most interesting young ladies and we join with their hosts of friends, here and elsewhere, in wishing them a long, happy, and prosperous life. August 27, The Waverly Advocate: All kinds of toilet waters New and second-hand school books September 17, Waverly Advocate: Local Happenings. Cider mills are now the mashers. The chestnut drop is going to be large.

November 5, The Waverly Advocate: Excellent schools, numerous churches, good society, broad clean streets, beautiful shade trees, unexcelled water-works, a No. Howard Elmer's residence has, during the past few weeks been enlarged and remodeled, and made to conform more to the modern style of architecture, the effect being to transform the once plain building into one of the handsomest, most convenient and desirable residences in the village.

A new, gothic, slate roof, with numerous gables and dormer windows, has been put on, extensions have been made, bay windows added, verandas and balconies built, and other marked changes made. The building is also being nicely painted in a pleasing combination of colors. At the first new foundations were built under it, and the cellar with its nicely cemented walls and bottom is one of the finest in town.

The location is one of the most desirable in the village, and when the work is completed and the grounds fitted up, the place will be second to none, in price of value or of beauty. Lacey of Binghamton, was the architect, John Seacord had charge of the carpenter work and George and John Morgan of the masonry, and the workmanship in all its parts is alike creditable to each of these gentlemen. Probably Pennsylvania Avenue.

Transmitted To The Legislature January 3, The Troy Press Company, Printers. The Citizen's Bank. Theodore Sawyer, President. Slaughter, Vice-President. The burial ceremonies, the respect for the departed and the belief in a future life are set forth in the practice of many tribes. Catlin, speaking of the Mandans, says: "Whenever a person dies in the Mandan Village, the customary honour and condolence are paid to his remains, and the body is dressed in its best attire, painted, oiled, and supplied with bow and quiver, shield, pipe and tobacco, knife, flint and steel, and food enough to last him a few days on the journey which he is to perform.

A fresh buffalo's skin, just taken from the animal's back, is wrapped around the body, and tightly bound and wound with thongs of rawhide from head to foot. Then other robes are soaked in water, till they are quite soft and elastic, which are also bandaged round the body in the same manner, and tied fast with thongs, which are wound with great care and exactness, so as to exclude the action of the air from all parts of the body.

Hewett, are strangely indifferent to the body after death. They consider it a mere husk, an empty case, to be disposed of with view only to the comfort of the survivors. The soul that emerged will go on to the next life, and construct for itself a new and better body. Every Indian in the old days had a Death Song prepared for the time when he knew he was rating the end.

One Indian Chief confided to me that his Death Song was the same as that of the thirty-seven Sioux patriots who were executed at Mankato, Minnesota, in for seeking to drive the invaders from their country:. I care not where my body lies, My soul goes marching on. When Nanni Chaddi and his four Apache warriors, after four days of starvation, thirst and agony, decided to face and fight rather than surrender to the White regiment that had them cornered in a cave, they sang to God:.

For ourselves we grieve not, But for those who are left behind. Let not fear enter into our hearts. We are going out to die. Then, armed only with arrows and lances, they dashed into the fire of a hundred rifles, and were shot to rags. Some years ago the Canadian Government made a ruling that no settler who wished to live on a small island would be allowed a homestead claim. The reason given was that no man who wished to live alone can, in the last analysis, be a good citizen. A good citizen needs near neighbours for himself, for his work, and for his family. Sociability as a fundamental of human nature is fully recognized in all Indian Tribes - even the nomads - and is the inevitable solution of many of the troubles that are harassing the White race in America.

The Indian was a socialist in the best and literal meaning of the word. The White farmer or hunter might live in a lonely cabin on his farm or on his hunting quest; but the Indian was always found living in a village with his people, either a movable village as among the nomadic Tribes of the Buffalo Plains, or in a farming village as among the Pueblos, or the Mandans, or the Tribes of the upper Missouri. The Redman's social system was very nearly the same as that instituted by Moses. Catlin remarks the identity of their laws with those of the Israelites, and instances their marriage customs, treatment of sick, burial of dead, mourning, ablutions.

The highest development of the Indian culture was seen in Central and South America, about the time of the Spanish discovery. According to Professor G. Murdoch 37 , the Inca social system of Peru was communistic, or, as he styles it, strictly one of "State Socialism". Under this system, the weak, the sick and the aged were adequately cared for. It achieved an equilibrium of production and consumption, not through the free interchange of goods, but through State-supervised, periodic distributions of the surplus production. Avarice, the root of all evil, was impossible, partly because they had no money; also because there was a strongly established public sentiment against any one man having vast possessions.

When the fortunes of war or of commerce resulted in one man accumulating a great number of horses, blankets or other property, it was the custom for him to give a feast or potlatch, and distribute his surplus among those who had little or none. Trade was carried on through a system of barter, by sticks or counters. On the Plains, the smallest unit was an arrow, worth ten cents; the next unit was a beaver skin, worth one dollar; the next a buffalo robe, worth five dollars.

Sometimes a horse came next with a value of two robes. These varied in different regions. On the Atlantic Coast, wampum or shell money was used. Although concrete articles were mentioned in these values, they were not necessarily produced, but were merely the names of such values. Usually the barter was completed at once, so there was no hoarding of the sticks or counters used.

No man owns land. A man owns only so much land as he tills, or occupies with his house or his field. When he ceases to occupy or till that land, it goes back to the Tribe, to be allotted to another member. No man owns the wood of the forest, or the water of the rivers, or the soil of the earth. He did not make them, they are the harvest of the land that belongs to the whole people; and only so much of them is his as he can gather with his own hands and use in his own home. The wild plants are under the same law, but a man may claim certain forage crops, such as wild rice, by establishing his owner mark around a reasonable area before it is ripe to cut.

Nevertheless, the High Council shall be judge as to the reasonableness of his claim. If any man shall gather a pile of firewood or buffalo chips or other fuel, or substance, such as clay or stone or poles or willows, and leave on it the mark of his ownership, that mark shall protect it from all who would take it till that season is over. After that, it becomes again tribal property.

No man owns game or wild animals, for these are the produce of the land that belongs to the nation - only so much of them is his as he can effectively and lawfully possess with his own hands. In some cases he may hold the sole right to capture eagles within a limited area. He picked no more berries than he needed to stay the cravings of his hunger, and scrupulously avoided injuring trees and bushes which bore anything edible. He killed no more game than he needed for himself and his camp, and ate every part of what he did kill.

When he built a file, he used only the fuel that was necessary, and before quitting the spot extinguished the flame with care. The Tribe alone controls all tribal interests. The Tribe may give to one family the exclusive right to hunt or gather wood or forage or wild rice or fruit in one tract or range, but the family cannot sell this right, nor can they hire others to hunt or gather for them, lest the hunting be destroyed by overdrain. If one finds game on the range, and have it in his power, only so much may be killed as he needs and can use.

He may not kill for the evil pleasure of killing and wasting. He should leave at least a pair to stock again the pond. Leave also the dams and the houses, so that the beaver may recover and again restock the range. If one find deer in a deer-yard when the snow is deep, he shall kill only so many as he and his people nigh at hand can use.

It is a dishonourable thing to kill so much game that it goes to waste. The punishment of those who so behave is that some day they shall suffer starvation. It is lawful to fire the prairie in fall, or in spring when the grass is dry; for thereby little damage is done, and the grass comes many days sooner and is much better in the springtime afterward. But it is at no time lawful to set the forest afire, for that is a great and lasting calamity to all who dwell therein, whether men or game, and it never recovers itself of the damage. All men are free and equal, and have a right to the pursuit of happiness in their own way - so only they do not encroach on the same right of others.

Every man must treat with respect all such things as are sacred to other people, whether he comprehends them or not. Every man and woman who is in sickness or adversity, or helpless old age, has a right to the protection and support of the Tribe - because in the days of their strength they also contributed to the common weal.

Every man and woman is expected to marry on coming of age. Celibacy is almost a disgrace, implying in some sort a failure. Marriages are arranged for all, and must not be within one's own clan. There was but little ceremony at the wedding. The man who desired a certain woman and had secured evidence of her approval sent to the girl's parents a present, proportional to his means. This was not truly wife purchase; it was rather considered compensation for loss of her services.

Marriage was, among the Indians, strictly a civil contract, dissoluble at any time by mutual consent and usually for one of three causes - infelicity, infidelity, or infertility. Divorce was allowed on the same basis as in the Mosaic code: if the man prove a failure as a husband, if the pair are not blessed with children, or serious discord develops, they can quickly have their union dissolved, each being free and expected to marry again. Marital infidelity was rare, because the remedy for discord was so easily within reach. Every child is entitled to a home, food, upbringing, and an education - and if so be he has no near kin, then he is a proper and honourable charge on the Tribe.

There was no such thing as an illegitimate child - that is, a child without social standing or legal rights because its parents were unmarried. All were legitimate, and when an unmarried woman had a baby, there never was lack of a kind person ready to offer the little one a home and an adoptive father. The tender regard of the Indian parent for the children is well known. More than one of their prophets have said: "If your child be wayward, unruly, rebellious, or insolent, do not beat him. Only a brute and a coward would beat a helpless child.

Rather discipline him by exclusion from the games with his fellows, and even to fasting till he is brought to see his error. They instruct them carefully in their own principles, and train them up with attention in the maxims and habits of their nation. Their system consists chiefly in the influence of example, and impressing upon them the traditional histories of their ancestors.

Love of their children is a dominant characteristic of the Red race. I never saw an Indian child spanked; I never saw an Indian child spoiled. Women had votes among the Indians ages before they were accorded the privilege in Europe. They had a voice in all national affairs and could rise to the chieftainship. In many Tribes, the High Chief was a woman.

HIS SPIRITUALITY

In most Tribes, the woman is the owner of the home and of the children, and of whatever is in the home. The man owns the horses, cattle, and crops, and whatever he produces or secures with his own hands. But when game is killed, or crops harvested and brought into the house, they become the property of the wife. The rule was respected by the man, and he killed his wife if she broke it; and public sentiment approved his act. Unfaithfulness was an unpardonable sin. Dodge, an Indian fighter, says: "The Cheyenne women are retiring and modest, and for chastity will compare favourably with women of any other nation or people.

These high standards were held among all the great tribes such as the Sioux, the Cheyennes and those who shared their culture. Among these, it was customary to have a Maiden Dance at special times. Only virgins might take part, and anyone was at liberty to challenge the right of such a one to dance - but he must be prepared with absolute proof or his punishment for false charges might be frightful, even death. In other Tribes, more lenient views prevailed.

Yet, among these, all valued the virginity of a woman; and a woman who transgressed was less highly esteemed because she was less likely to be true to the man she married. But there was no public scorn. Unchaste women were not treated as criminals; any more than a Whiteman is made outcast for taking a little too much to drink. The Rev. Van Dusen, missionary to the Ojibway Indians, writes: "The Indian character, in its unadulterated grandeur, is most admirable and attractive.

Before it is polluted by the pernicious example of others - the demoralizing and debasing influence of wicked Whitemen - the genuine North American pagan presents to the world the most noble specimen of the natural man that can be found on the face of the earth. Bishop Henry Benjamin Whipple, of Minnesota, thus sums up the wild Indian, after intimate knowledge, during a lifetime of association: "The North American Indian is the noblest type of a heathen man on the earth. He recognizes a Great Spirit; he believes in immortality; he has a quick intellect; he is a clear thinker; he is brave and fearless, and, until betrayed, he is true to his plighted faith; he has a passionate love for his children, and counts it a joy to die for his people.

Our most terrible wars have been with the noblest types of the Indians and with men who had been the Whiteman's friends. Nicolet said the Sioux were the finest type of wild men he had ever seen. The whole village must be in distress before any individual is left in necessity. Even stronger is the summary of the Jesuit father, J. Lafitau: "They are high-minded and proud; possess a courage equal to every trial; an intrepid valour; the most heroic constancy under torments, and an equanimity which neither misfortunes nor reverses can shake.

Toward each other, they behave with a natural politeness and attention, entertaining a high respect for the aged, and a consideration for their equals which appears scarcely reconcilable with that freedom and independence of which they are so jealous. In the summer of , I met Father A. He had gone there twenty-five years before, an enthusiastic young religionist, convinced that the highest calling on earth was that of missionary - his noblest triumph would be the conversion of these Indians to his particular form of Christianity.

He began, as all sincere and devoted missionaries do, by learning the language and also studying the philosophy of the people he hoped to influence. When I first saw him he had ceased to call them "benighted heathens" and was already admitting that they were a noble race with high standards of religion and ethics. Not long afterwards he admitted to me that the Medicine Lodge of the Sioux Nation was "a true Church of God, and we have no right to stamp it out. Instead I found him as "Lawyer Beede" and heard the story of a noble and sincere messenger.

They do not need a missionary, but they do need a lawyer to defend them in the Courts. After some years I was admitted to the bar of North Dakota, and now I am their permanent official advocate in all cases involving Indians that come into Court. The Indians can pay me little or nothing for my services.

I live in a little cabin built by myself and cook my own meals. Long after Lafitau, the judicial Morgan, in his League of the Iroquois, says: "In legislation, in eloquence, in fortitude, and in military sagacity, they [the Iroquois] had no equals. In their religious and war ceremonies, at their feasts, festivals, and funerals, the widows and orphans, the poor and needy are always thought of; not only thought of.

A portion of the hard bread was hidden away, and the smokes were taken in secret. An Indian, undemoralized by contact with the Whites, under similar circumstances, would divide down to the last morsel. Captain John G. Bourke, who spent most of his active life as an Indian fighter, and who, by training, was an Indian hater, was at last, even in the horror of an Indian-crushing campaign, compelled to admit: "The American Indian, born free as the eagle, would not tolerate restraint, would not brook injustice; therefore, the restraint imposed must be manifestly for his benefit, and the government to which he was subjected must be eminently one of kindness, mercy and absolute justice, without necessarily degenerating into weakness.

The American Indian despises a liar. The American Indian is the most generous of mortals; at all his dances and feasts, the widow and the orphan are the first to be remembered. It happened to be our last meeting, and his last words deeply impressed me. We were talking of the Indians, and Bill said, "I never led an expedition against the Indians but I was ashamed of myself, ashamed of my government, and ashamed of my flag; for they were always in the right and we were always in the wrong. They never broke a treaty, and we never kept one.

After reviving the ancient memories, he said and dictated for print: "If I had known then what I know now about Indian character, I would have deserted from the American army and joined up with the Apaches. Miles himself described the Indians as "the most heroic face the world has ever seen. Edgar L. Hewett has publicly stated many times: "There can be no question that the Redman had evolved a better civilization than our own. Its one weakness was in the fact that it did not carry the mastery of metals. The welfare of the people was the supreme end of government. Professor C.

Nichols, of the Southwestern University, Georgetown, Texas, a profound student of Indian life, said to me sadly, in reference to the destruction of the primitive Indian: "I am afraid we have stamped out a system that was producing men who, taken all round, were better than ourselves. Thus these soldiers and travellers, with scarcely a dissentient voice, proclaimed that the Redman, in the free enjoyment of his life and religion, was brave, clean, kind, religious, and reverent; temperate and unsordid, untainted by avarice, dignified, courteous, truthful, and honest; the soul of honour, and gifted with a physique that represents the highest bodily development of which the world has record.

The belief in witchcraft was widely spread among the Indians. Their ideas and attitude toward it were much like those announced by Moses. The subject is obscure and perplexing. There are not lacking those who believe in witchcraft as the hypnotic power of a strong will over a weaker. Decrepit old women are the unlikeliest persons in the world to have such power. The subject is not exhausted nor is the idea exploded. The valid legal plea of "undue influence" comes properly under this head. The Medicine Men or Shamans were healers, as well as wise men.

While these were supposed to know surgery as well as medicine, their knowledge was very superficial and quite empirical. Their practice was largely with a spiritual approach, as indeed were most Indian ways of life. They had no knowledge of our modern science of biochemistry, but they understood and worked largely with massage, sweat baths, mud baths, mineral springs, decoctions of barks, sun rays, pinewood air and smoke, and faith cure. They had, moreover, much knowledge of the occult properties of plants, a knowledge which, alas, is being allowed to die out. In treatment of snakebite, for instance, some had and still have a sovereign remedy.

We owe to the ancient Peruvians our knowledge and use of such drugs as cocaine, quinine, cascara, ipecac, tolu, cola, and the like. The Indians had no written speech and no codification of their laws. The laws were purely traditional, and the punishment for breach of the same was meted out by the Chief and the High Council, or sometimes the Chief alone. In some cases, the aggrieved party was encouraged to take the law into his own hands.

In all cases, public opinion was the most important influence in appraising a crime. In some cases, compensatory damages were imposed on the delinquent; in rare cases, physical punishment; in extreme cases, death or ostracism. Each of the great Plains tribes had a Lodge of Dog Soldiers, who were the police. They took orders from the Chief, and were sworn to "walk straight", that is, obey him, without regard for any personal consequences. The cruelest folk recorded in history were the Christians of the Middle Ages.

One notorious preacher and leader of a Christian Church decoyed his rival preacher into a trap, and not only condemned him to be burned alive, but deliberately selected green wood that the agony might thereby be prolonged. The diabolical ingenuity of the European torturer was not satisfied by the fiery death, preceded by long slow mutilation; but mental agonies were invented as well, that could and did prolong the horror for week and months. The official records of the Holy Inquisition announce proudly that they burned alive , human beings because they differed from them in religious belief.

All historic evidence of value makes it clear that in general the Indians were originally the kindest of people, and torture of prisoners was practically unknown until introduced and made general by the White invaders. Nevertheless there can be no doubt that in primitive days, the Iroquois, the Hurons, the Abnaki and some other Tribes did occasionally torture a prisoner taken in war - either because he was a notorious enemy who had caused them great and terrible losses, or because he directly challenged them to do so - that he might demonstrate his fortitude and defiance to the last.

Among the Christian nations of Europe it was the usual thing to torture all prisoners. During the War of , both the English under General Proctor and the Americans under General Wayne were following their custom of torturing their prisoners. But in the English army it was stopped by the great Indian Tecumseh, who denounced as cowards any who would torture a helpless captive.

When Proctor objected that it was customary, and the men must be amused, Tecumseh challenged Proctor to mortal combat, man to man, whereupon Proctor backed down like the poltroon he was. Scalping a warrior killed in battle was an established custom in many Tribes; but how much cleaner and better than the Whiteman's custom of putting the dead man's head on a pole, that its agonized expression might long be enjoyed by the victor. It was from the Puritan Pilgrim Fathers that the Massachusetts Indians learned to scalp their enemies. All historians, hostile or friendly, admit the Indian to have been the finest type of physical manhood the world has ever known.

None but the best, the picked, chosen and trained of the Whites, had any chance with him. The Redman's approach to all life and thought was spiritual. The interdependence of body and soul is thus summed up by Ohiyesa in his inspiring account of the religion of his people, the Dakotas: "The moment that man conceived of a perfect body, supple, symmetrical, graceful, and enduring - in that moment he had laid the foundation of a moral life.

No man can hope to maintain such a temple of the spirit beyond the period of adolescence unless he is able to curb his indulgence in the pleasures of the senses. Upon this truth, the Indian built a rigid system of physical training, a social and moral code that was the law of his life. He desired to be a worthy link in the generations, and that he might not destroy by his weakness that vigour and purity of blood which had been achieved at the cost of so much self-denial by a long line of ancestors.

The bodily fatigue thus induced, especially when coupled with a reduced diet, is a reliable cure for undue sexual desires. Speaking of the Iroquois in primitive condition, Brinton says that physically "they were unsurpassed by any on the continent, and I may even say by any other people in the world. The most famous runner of ancient Greece was Pheidippides, whose record run from Athens to Sparta was miles in 36 hours. Among our Indians, such a feat would have been considered very second-rate.

In , at Fort Ellice, I saw a young Cree who, on foot, had just brought in despatches from Fort Qu'Appelle miles away in 25 hours. It created almost no comment. I heard little from the traders hut cool remarks like, "A good boy", "pretty good run". It was obviously a very usual exploit, among Indians. The Zunis have a race called, "Kicked Stick". In this, the contestants each kick a stick before them as they run. Hodge tells me that there is a record of 20 miles covered in 2 hours by one of the kickers.

The Tarahumare mail carrier runs 70 miles a day, every day in the week, carrying a heavy mailbag, and he doesn't know that he is doing an exploit.

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In addition we are told: "The Tarahumare mail carrier from Chihuahua to Batopiles, Mexico, runs regularly more than miles a week; a Hopi messenger has been known to run miles in 15 hours. Running Antelope, Chief among the Hunkpapa Sioux, was famous as an orator and a pictographic artist.

He was also a wonderful runner. Daniel G. In , the all-round athletic championship of the world was won at the Olympic games by James Thorpe, a Carlisle Indian. He was, at best, the pick of ,, while against him were Whitemen, the pick of ,, A corollary of their muscular perfection was the marvellous nerve of the race. The shock or blow of a bullet will ordinarily paralyse so many nerves and muscles of a Whiteman as to knock him down, even though not striking a vital part.

The Indian gives no heed to such wounds, and to drop him in his tracks,' the bullet must reach the brain, the heart, or the spine. I have myself seen an Indian go off with two bullets through his body, within an inch or two of the spine, the only effect of which was to cause him to change his gait from a run to a dignified walk. Hewett says: "In bodily proportions, colour, gesture, dignity of hearing, the race is incomparable.

It was free from our infectious scourges, tuberculosis, and syphilis, and the resulting physical deformities and mental degeneracies. It was probably free from leprosy, scrofula, and cancer, and it is safe to say that nervous prostration was unknown to the Indian. Grinnell says: "The struggle for existence weeded out the weak and the sickly, the slow and the stupid, and created face physically perfect and mentally fitted to cope with the conditions which they were forced to meet, so long as they were left to themselves.

With an equipment of courage, wood wisdom, strength, endurance, wonderful physique, and speed, we can understand and accept Colonel R. Dodge's estimate of the Red Indian as the "finest natural soldier in the world. Alexander Henry 11, a fur and whisky trader, wl1 did his share in degrading the early Indians, and di not love them, admits of the Mandans, in "Both men and warnen male it a rule to go dow to the river and wash every morning and evening. Catlin, after eight years in their lodges says that, notwithstanding many exceptions, among the wild Indians the "strictest regard to decency and cleanliness and elegance of dress is observed, and there are few people, perhaps, who take more pains to keep their persons neat and cleanly, than they do.

Here is a paragraph by J. Dorsey on Omaha cleanliness: "The Omahas generally bathe hica every day in warm weather, early in the morning and at night. Jackson, a member of the Elk gens, bathes every day, even in winter. He breaks a hole in the ice on the Missouri River and bathes, or else he rubs snow over his body. In winter the Omahas heat water in a kettle and wash themselves kigcija. The Ponkas used to bathe in the Missouri every day.

Every Indian village in the old days had a Turkish bath, as we call it - a "Sweat Lodge", as they say - used as a cure for coughs, colds, and inflammatory rheumatism, etc. Catlin describes this in great detail, and says: "I allude to their vapour baths, or sudatories, of which each village has several, and which seems to be a kind of public property - accessible to all, and resorted to by all, male and female, old and young, sick and well.

Old-time travelers and modern Indian fighters agree that there was no braver man on earth, alive or in history, than the Redman. Courage was the virtue he chiefly honoured. The purpose of his whole life and training was to make him calm, fearless and efficient in every possible stress or situation. Father Lafitau said of the Indians of Lower Canada in "They are high-minded and proud; possess a courage equal to every trial; an intrepid valour; the most heroic constancy under torments, and an equanimity which neither misfortune nor reverses can shake. His indifference relative to this important article, which is the source of so many apprehensions to almost every other nation, is truly admirable.

When his fate is pronounced by the physician, and it remains no longer uncertain, he harangues those about him with the greatest composure. Their children have been observed to press their naked arms against each other and put burning cinders between them, defying each other's fortitude in bearing the pain which the fire occasioned.

I myself saw a child five or six years old, who, having been severely burnt by some boiling water accidently thrown upon it, sang its Death Song with the most extraordinary constancy every time they dressed the sores, although suffering the most severe pain. The truly brave man, we contend, yields neither to fear nor anger, desire nor agony. He is at all times master of himself. His courage rises to the heights of chivalry, patriotism, and real heroism.

None of us is likely to question the Redman's prowess when we remember, for example, that Black Hawk with 40 warriors utterly routed American riflemen in ; Chief Joseph in , with inferior weapons, and encumbered with women and children, beat the American soldiers over and over again with double his number; and in Dull Knife with 69 warriors, fought and defied 2, American troops for over four months. In , Geronimo, the Apache Chief, with only 35 men, and no base of supplies, fought off 5, regular United States troops, Indian auxiliaries, and a company of Border Scouts, for 18 months, during which time he lost only 6 warriors, but killed a couple hundred of his enemy.

Finally General Nelson A. Miles says: "History can show no parallel to the heroism and fortitude of the American Indians in the years fight during which they contested inch by inch the possession of their country against a foe infinitely better equipped, with inexhaustible resources, and in overwhelming numbers. Had they been equal in numbers, history might have had a very different story to tell.

Nothing seems to anger the educated Indian to-day more than the oft-repeated absurdity that his race was of a gloomy, silent nature. Anyone that has ever been in an Indian village knows what a scene of joy and good cheer it normally was. In every such gathering there was always at least one recognized fun maker, who led them all in joke and hilarious jest. Their songs, their speeches, their fairy tales are full of fun and dry satire.

The reports of the Bureau of American Ethnology sufficiently set forth these facts. Ohiyesa, the Sioux, says on this subject: "There is scarcely anything so exasperating to me as the idea that the natives of this country have no sense of humour and no faculty for mirth. This phase of their character is well understood by those whose fortune or misfortune it has been to live among them, day in and day out, at their homes.

I don't believe I ever heard a real hearty laugh away from the Indians' fireside. I have often spent an entire evening in laughter with them, until I could laugh no more. There are evenings when the recognized wit or storyteller of the village gives a free entertainment which keeps the rest of the community in a convulsive state until he leaves them.

However, Indian humour consists as much in the gestures and inflections of the voice as in words, and is really untranslatable. And, again, Grinnell: "The common belief that the Indian is stoical, stolid, and sullen, is altogether erroneous. They are really a merry people, good-natured and jocular, usually ready to laugh at an amusing incident or a joke, with a simple mirth that reminds one of children.

Colonel R. Dodge, says: "The Indians are habitually and universally the happiest people I ever saw. Catlin says: "As evidence of. Every traveller among the highly developed tribes of the Plains Indians tells a similar story; even that rollicking old cutthroat, Alexander Henry II, says after fifteen years among the wild Indians: "I have been frequently fired at by them and have had several narrow escapes for my life.

But I am happy to say they never pillaged me to the value of a needle. In my own travels in the far North, , I found the Indians tainted with many White vices, and in many respects degenerated; but I also found them absolutely honest, and I left valuable property hung in trees for months, without fear, knowing that no wild Indian would touch it. There is a story told me by Bishop Whipple: He was leaving his cabin, with its valuable contents, to be gone some months, and sought some way of rendering all robberproof.

His Indian guide then said: "Why, Brother, leave it open. Have no fear. There is not a Whiteman within a hundred miles! On the road to a certain large Ojibway Indian village in , I lost a considerable roll of bills. My friend, the Whiteman in charge, said: "If an Indian finds it, you will have it again within an hour; if a Whiteman finds it, you will never see it again, for White folk are very weak, when it comes to property matters. Many years ago when I was at Standing Rock, N.

But now that the younger generation are coming back from your Indian schools in the East, where they have been 'made over into Whitemen,' we have to padlock doors and windows, night and day. The Hudson's Bay Company officials in Canada assured me on many occasions that their instruction from headquarters were: "Give as much as two years' credit to a wild pagan Indian; but as soon as he cuts his hair, and pretends he is civilized, don't trust him, even overnight. Finally, to cover the far Southwest, I found that the experience of most travellers agrees with the following: "I lived among the wild Indians for eighteen years ; I know the Apaches, the Navajos, the Utes, and the Pueblos, and I never knew a dishonest Indian.

At every first meeting of Redmen and Whites, the Whites were inferior in numbers, and yet were received with the utmost kindness, until they treacherously betrayed those who had helped and harboured them. Even Christopher Columbus, blind and burnt up with avarice as he was, and soul-poisoned with superstition and contempt for an alien face, yet had fairness to write home to his royal accomplices in crime, the King and Queen of Spain: "I swear to your Majesties that there is not a better people in the world than these; more affectionate, affable, or mild.

They love their neighbours as themselves, and they always speak smilingly.

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Precisely the same situation appeared when the Pilgrim Fathers began to colonize New England, and when the Virginian colonists landed farther south. Yet in every case except that of William Penn , as the colonists grew stronger, they turned on their kind protectors and robbed and murdered without mercy, compunction, or restraint. In the terrible history of the Donner expedition that tried to cross the Plains and the mountains of California in , we have a harrowing and disgusting picture of the way in which these Christians reviled, hated, harried, robbed and devoured each other. They were starving, broken, frost-burnt, ready to kill each other for some trifling advantage.

Then the man, William H. Eddy, who records the horrible story, tells how he, in trying to escape, came to an Indian village, distressed and snowbound in the high Sierras. His reception there by a young Indian is thus related: "My feet were in very bad condition - though no worse than those of my companions. The frosted flesh had broken into deep cracks which refused to heal and continually oozed blood and watery matter. The woman carried away the rags and rinsed them clean of the encrusted blood and accumulated filth. No hope of reward could have impelled that act.

It was promoted by an inherent nobility and a desire to succour a fellow human whose condition was even more miserable than his own. Countless similar incidents are on record from earliest times to the present; and yet "the most shameful chapter of American history is that in which is recorded the account of our dealings with the Indians. The story of our Government's intercourse with this race is an unbroken narrative of injustice, fraud and robbery. Abraham Lincoln while President said: "If I live, this accursed system of robbery and shame in our treatment of the Indians shall be reformed.

A characteristic record of the seventeenth century appears on a Puritan's gravestone as follows:. Sacred to the Memory of Lynn S. He had hoped to make it before the year ended when he fell asleep in the arms of Jesus in his home:" "In N. In spite of their readiness for engaging in war when necessary, the Indians had a deeper conception of the fundamental basis of peace than has been generally understood.

In some degree, the meaning was inherent in all tribes, but in the famous Iroquois Confederacy, we find the perfection of the principle. The vast portion of the continent under their power was surely not held by force alone, for never were there more than 15, members, counting men, women and children. Wallace pp.

They knew that any real peace must be based on justice and a healthy reasonableness. They knew also that peace will endure only if men recognize the sovereignity of a common law and are prepared to back that law with force - not chiefly for the purpose of punishing those who have disturbed the peace, but rather for the purpose of preventing such disturbance by letting all men know in advance of any contingency, that the law will certainly prevail.

It was in the handling of this problem, how to maintain a popular will to peace, that the Iroquois made their greatest contribution to government - a contribution that it may be profitable for us to examine today, since now there is no greater problem confronting global statesmanship than that of maintaining this popular will to peace despite increasing tensions in an ever-more-narrowly-jostling world society. Their religion was sounder than their theology, their political institutions maturer than their political science.

The only science in which they excelled was that of human relationships. They used the same ward for both. Peace the Law was righteousness in action, the practice of justice between individuals and nations. If they ever recognized it as a mystic presence. Their own Confederacy, which they named the Great Peace, was sacred. The chiefs who administered the League were their priests. It was thought of and spoken of in terms of its component elements: as Health soundness of body and sanity of mind , Law justice codified to meet particular cases , and Authority which gives confidence that justice will prevail.

But there were other important elements in the symbol. Other nations, not yet members of the League, would see these roots as they grew outward, and, if they were people of goodwill would desire to follow them to their source and take shelter with others under the Tree. Into this current he cast the weapons of war, the hatchets and war-clubs, saying, 'We here rid the earth of these things of an Evil Mind.

He created thee, and to him thou belongest. He is thy father, and he loves thee even more than I love thee.

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